The Story of Kashmir
Affairs - A Peep into the Past
by Triloki Nath
In 1320 Rencana, a Ladakhi prince, got king of Kashmir,
by a strategem and seized the throne of Kashmir. He requested prominent
Kashmiri Brahmins for his conversion to Hinduism but his wish was impolitely
turned down. This was the heinous and unpardonable mistake committed by
the Kashmiri Brahmins. Renchana embraced Islam under the guidance of Bulbul
Shah who had arrived in Kashmir with not more than 100 companions. He assumed
the name Sultan Sadar-ud- din. He lived only for 3 years.
In 1339 Shah
Mir, by treachery, succeeded in wresting the throne from Kota Rani and
became king under the title Sultan Shamas-ud-din.
In 1389 Sultan
Sikander sat on the throne of Kashmir. His reign heralded the darkest period
for Kashmiri Hindus. Forcible conversions, killings, destruction of temples
and exquisite monuments and mass migrations of Hindus were the distinguishing
features of his rule. Once, when Hindus were fleeing through southern Kashmir
his soldiers took positions at a gully leading to Kishtwar and whoever
came to escape through the gully was done to death. It is during the reign
of Sultan Sikandar that Hazrat Shah Hamdaan arrived in Kashmir with 700 Sayyads.
found persecution almost mitigated during the reign of Zain-ul-abidin (1420-
70) who left no stone unturned to rehabilitate them. This change was wrought
in him by Shri Bhat, a learned Brahmin and physician, who cured the king
of a deadly disease. The king desired the Brahmin to ask for something
precious for the service rendered. Shri Bhat told the king that he had
no need for anything except that his bretheren devastated, killed and scattered
be rehabilitated and allowed to preach and practise their religion without
any hitch or hinderance. The king granted his wish and was true to his
With the passing
away of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin a most obnoxious period of intrigues and
conspiracies prevailed in Kashmir which culminated in the ascendancy of
the most intolerant Shia regimes. During Moosa Rana's terrorsome reign
40,000 Kashmiri Pandit families were converted to Shiaism. The rite of
circumcision of converted Kashmiri Pandits was performed on a mass scale
at Idgah ground in Srinagar. Almost every Shiatie Muslim in Kashmir is
a descendant of a forcibly converted Kashmiri Pandit. During the rule of
Chaks Kashmir came under the grip of a terrible famine in 1576-78 in which
half of the population died.
of Kashmir to Mughal Empire
Akbar the Great
annexed Kashmir to his empire in 1589 by a deceiptful military adventure.
During 120 years of Mughal Rule Kashmiri Hindus, as usual, were suffering
persecution but with lesser pain depending upon the disposition of the
Mughal Governor. During 1671-75 persecution of Brahmins by Governor Iftikar
Khan makes a woeful tale. However, during the Mughal rule Kashmiri Hindus
had the opportunity to migrate to the planes of Hindostan and they did
avail of such opportunities and attained to high positions at several places.
was followed by 67 years of Afgan occupation. This period was the most
tormenting period for the Kashmiris. Governor Lal Khan Khattak and Faqir
Ullah got hundreds of Kashmiri Pandits killed. During governor ship of
Haji Karim Dad Khan and Assad Khan the sufferings of the Kashmiris reached
climax. Assad Khan would rip the bellies of the people like a surgeon.
was followed by Atta Moh'd Khan whose lust for beautiful Kashmiri women
knew no bounds. Kashmiri Pandits were the worst sufferers. They fled to
jungles and passed their days in hiding to save their women folk from molestation.
Khan ruled Kashmir for 6 years with most crooked villainy and terror. It
was during his reign that a nobleman Pt. Birbal Dhar accompanied by his
son, Raj Kak Dhar, stealthily left Kashmir for Lahore to pray to Maharaja
Ranjit Singh to send his army for taking over Kashmir so that the Kashmiris
groaning under the Afgan yoke could find deliverance. When Sirdar Azim
Khan came to know of it he ordered Birbal's wife and daughter-in-law, who
were in hiding, to be produced before him. Birbal Dhar's son-in-law, Telak
Chand Munshi, fearing death penalty, provided clue about the noble ladies
and they were summoned before Sirdar. Birbal Dhar's wife commited suicide.
His daughter-in-law was molested and put in the harem.
Khan was recalled to assist his brother Fateh Moh'd Khan at Qandhar. Before
his departure he despatched his harem (alongwith Birbal Dhar's daughter-in-law)
and properties worth two crores of Rupees to Kabul in charge of his Peshkar,
Sahaj Ram Dhar. After some time Azim Khan left for Kabul. He handed over
the authority of governance to his younger brother, Jabbar Khan. He took
Pt. Suraj Ram Tikku son of Dewan Nand Ram with him. At Ganal he exhorted
Pt. Suraj Ram Tikku to embrace Islam. Pt. Suraj Ram Tikku abused him for
telling him so and was immediately done to death.
of Kashmir to Sikh Empire
Singh took time to veer around Birbal Dhar's reasoning for taking over
Kashmir by armed intervention. Pt. Birbal Dhar then gave an undertaking
that in case of failure he would pay for the loss incurred and left his
son Raj Kak Dhar in the Lahore Darbar as a hostage in case the campaign
Singh then sent 30,000 troops in charge of Pt. Birbal Dhar commanded among
others by Raja Gulab Singh. Two battles ensued one at the top of Pir Panjal
and the other at Shopyan Plateu. Afgan Soldiery was completely routed.
Jabbar Khan was wounded and he fled away. Thus Kashmir passed into the
hands of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Singh bestowed honours and favours on Pt. Raj Kak Dhar and sent him back
to Kashmir with dignity and honour. Sikh Rule abided in Kashmir from 1819
to 1846. The first Sikh Governor was Dewan Moti Ram. Maharaja Ranjit Singh
through his genius, both as a ruler and as a general, had been able to
carve out a viable sovereign Khalsa kingdom comprising provinces of Lahore,
Kashmir, Multan and Peshawar.
was part of India once upon a time but was torn apart from the mother country
through cataclysms of historical compulsions. Had Maharaja Ranjit Singh
not carved out a sovereign Khalsa kingdom Panjab and Kashmir would have
become part of Afganistan.
Singh lacked some essential elements of a far-sighted statesman. It was
because of this that immediately after his death confusion and anarchy
gripped his descendants, nobility and army commanders. English seized this
opportunity by the forelock.
of Kashmir to Maharaja Gulab Singh
of the Sikh Army smelled a rat in the strategic manoeuvres of the British
in the region. Also, Khalsa Army was itching for a war. The outcome was
First Sikh War in which Sikhs suffered a defeat because of the wile treachery
of its own commanders. War was brought to an end by the Treaty of Lahore
on March 9, 1846.
As per Article
2 of the Treaty of Lahore Sikhs had to pay war indemnity of one and a half
crores of Rupees. But they had only Rupees fifty lacs. Therefore, as equivalent
of Rupees one crore they transferred to the Honourable East India Company
in perpetual sovereignty all the hill countries which are between River
Beas and Indus, including the provinces of Kashmir and Hazara. Subsequently,
the English by the treaty of Amritsar concluded on March 16, 1846, transferred
and made over for ever in "independent possession" to Maharaja Gulab Singh
and heirs male of his body, Kashmir and Hazara, including Chamb for 75
lakhs of Rupees. The transfer was legally and actually flawless.
paint Sikh Rule in Kashmir in darkest hues. Nevertheless, the period was
better than 67 years of Afgan occupation and there were no conversions
by sword which characterised most of Islamic regimes. Maharaja Gulab Singh
was able to launch successiul military campaigns for annexing Ladakh and Zanskar. The hero of these campaigns was General Zoarawar Singh who even
marched upto Lahsa.
Singh also annexed Gilgat, Chillas, Dardistan and other tribal areas to
his kingdom. In all these campaigns nearly 30,000 committed soldiers, flower
of Dogra manhood, laid down their lives.
In 1858, Ranbir
Singh son of Maharaja Gulab Singh ascended the throne of J&K State.
On the death of Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1887 Maharaja Pratap Singh assumed
the rulership of the State.
Role of non-Kashmiri Muslims in Fomenting Trouble in J&K State
reveal that non-Kashmiri Muslims living outside the State of Jammu and
Kashmir were actively conniving to foment discontent among Muslims in Kashmir
against the Hindu Maharaja. This outside interference became intensified
during the time of Maharaja Pratap Singh. It was because of this that in
1889 British people hatched a conspiracy to dispossess Maharaja Pratap
Singh of his throne and annex the J&K State to the British India. Charges
of misgovernment were levelled against Maharaja Pratap Singh. He was removed
and a Council of Regency was constituted to administer the State. However,
accusations against Maharaja couldn't be substantiated. The State was therefore
restored to Maharaja Pratap Singh after 16 years in 1905. This was a great
achievement for Dogras.
Launched by Kashmiri Pandits for a Separate Home-land in Kashmir
administration of the Council of Regency Strange and mysterious things
seemed to have happened. Kashmiri Pandits again felt suffocated when they
saw virulent Muslim communalism reorganizing itself. They submitted a petition
demanding separate Homeland for themselves in the south of Kashmir.
during the administration of the Council of Regency needs a thorough probe
by the historians. However, documents are likely to have been stolen from
Change In December, 1947, Ram Manohar Lohia had indicated in his Confidential
Note that during the period 1887 to 1947, the Kashmiri Pandit community
had dwindled from one lac to 80,000 (a decrease of 20%) whereas Muslim
population had risen from five lacs to twenty lacs (an increase of 400%).
This needs to be probed into by the historians. Didn't the British, in
connivance with the non-Kashmiri Muslim leaders residing outside J&K
State, give a fillip to Muslim influx into Kashmir from territories contiguous
to the boundries of J&K State?
in the population of Kashmiri Pandits could be attributed to the silent
exodus induced by the fear of the revival of fatal Muslim dominance as
the tyrrany, loot, rape and slaughter by Afgans was fresh in their minds.
Singh ascended to the throne in 1927. He was a unique Maharaja who alone
stood up at the Round Table Conference in London in 1933 and stoutly pleaded
for a progressive approach to India's aspirations for political independence.
In this manner he became an eye-sore to the British Administration in India.
Muslims Foment Trouble in J&K State
including Sir Mohammad Iqbal had been consistently derogating in public
the Treaty of Amritsar (1846) by which Maharaja Gulab Singh acquired Kashmir
and other parts. Therefore, non- Kashmiri Muslims considered it a religious
duty to foment trouble in Kashmir for stirring up Muslim population against
On June 25,1931,
a congregation was held in the compound of Khankah-i-Moula in Srinagar.
A non- Kashmiri Muslim who had entered into the State was delivering a
venomous attack on Dogra Maharaja and exhorting the congregation not to
rest till the palace of the Maharaja was razed to the ground. The stranger
was arrested by the police for preaching sedition. His trial was fixed
in the premises of Central Jail, Srinagar, on July 13, 1931. A massive
Muslim mob assembled outside the Central Jail. They were rending the air
with slogans against Dogras, Kafirs and Hindus. At one stage they violently
surged forward to crash open the gate. After firing in the air, the authorities
were compelled to fire upon berserk mob. Over 20 people died. The mob now
directed their ire towards Kashmiri Pandits. Some Kashmiri Pandits were
killed in Chadoora Tehsil. However, effective police arrangements prevented
large scale destruction. Chowdhury Ghulam Abba and Sheikh Mohamrnad Abdullah,
Secretary Muslim Youngmen's Association, were arrested. Only after a few
days they tendered unconditional apology with oath of loyalty to the Maharaja.
As a gesture of goodwill Maharaja ordered their immediate release.
Develops between Sheikh Abdullah and Moulvi Yusuf
Abdullah's oath of loyalty to the throne was resented to by the masses.
Mirwaize Moulvi Yousuf Shah tried to seize the opportunity for taking Ieadership
into his own hands. He resorted to rabble- rousing with the cry to JEHAD.
However, he was summoned in audience by the Maharaja. Moulvi Yousuf Shah
was so much impressed by the magnanimity of Maharaja that he swore unstinted
loyalty to the throne. Muslim leaders outside J&K State felt crest-
fallen. They constituted a Kashmir Committee at Shimla and Khalifa Bashir
Ahmad Qadyani was made its President. However, Mr. BashirAhmed was removed
for being a Qadyani and Sir Mohammad Iqbal was elected as President of
the Kashmir Committee.
were sent for fomenting trouble in Kashmir but tussel for leadership between
Shaikh Moh'd Abdullah and Mirwaiz Moulvi Yussuf Shah which had taken a
serious turn engaged the attention of the masses. Therefore, outside instigation
could not be fully etfective.
State Visit to Kashmir
In 1933 Viceroy
of India was on a state visit to KashmirMuslim leaders submitted a memorandum
to him alleging atrocities perpetrated by Dogra Rulers on Kashmiri Muslims.
After the departure of Viceroy these leaders were temporarily banished
from the State. There were riots and disturbances. Maharaj appointed a
Commission of Enquiry presided over by Justice Dalal, Chief Justice of
the Jammu and Kashmir High Court. Sheikh Abdullah and his followers refused
to cooperate with this commission because they said that the Commission
was composed of people who were in State service and could not, theretore,
Abjures Communal Politics:
In 1939 Sheikh
Moh'd Abdullah gave up exclusive communal politics and changed the nomenclature
of his party from Muslim Conference (which was not a branch of Indian Muslim
League) to National Conference (as dlstinct from lndian National Congress).
Perhaps Sheikh Moh'd Abdullah felt that adopting the policy of All India
Muslim League would not serve his interests which he identified with the
interests of the Kashmiri People. Getting cue from Sir Mohammed Iqbal,
Sheikh Abdullah never reconciled to the fact that Maharaja possessed Kashmir
by virtue of the Treaty of Amritsar under which Maharaja Gulab Singh took
possession of Kashmir by paying 15 lakhs of Rupees and saved the Sikh State
from humiliation by the British. It was also lost sight of that Sikhs had
delivered Kashmir out of the foreign yoke by a bravely fought battle. Also,
Treaty of Amritsar continued to be an eye-sore for other top-ranking Muslim
leaders. Sheikh Abdullah was feeling that by translating into actual practice
the anti-Islamic Communist doctrine of transferring proprietorship of land
to the tiller a milestone would be crossed towards mitigation of effects
of the Treaty of Amritsar (1846). For this purpose he purchased the services
of a communist ideologue Shri B.P.L. Bedi and his French wife Freda Bedi.
New Kashmir document was framed and published under the guidance of Shri B.P.L.
Bedi. New Kashmir programme became as important for the National
Conference as Communist Manifesto was for international communism.
In 1946 Cabinet
Mission had been sent to India by the British Government. Muslim League
was employing all its tactics to woo Kashmiri Muslims. National Conference,
however, continued propagating against Muslim Conference on the plea that
its composition was of non-Kashmiri Muslims. Mr. Moh'd Ali Jinah had paid
a visit to the Valley in 1945 but masses in general under the tutelage
of National Conference cold-shouldered him. At some places there were anti-demonstrations.
Events were fast moving on the Indian scene. Labour Party in England had
affirmed granting of independence to India. Sheikh Moh'd Abdullah had smelt
some rat in the visit of Mr. Mohammed Ali Jinah. He launched Quit Kashmir
movement warning Dogras to abdicate Kashmir all at once. The slogan of
the movement was: Bainama Amritsar tod do, Kashmir chod do (Abrogate Treaty
of Amritsar and vacate Kashmir). This was a movement for the separation
of Kashmir from the J&K State created by the sagacious genius of Maharaja
Gulab Singh and nurtured by the blood of 30,000 Dogras during a span of
100 years. Treaty of Amritsar was the corner stone on which the edifice
of J&K State was built and Quit Kashmir movement launched by Sheikh
Mohammed Abdullah wanted to dynamite that edifice. It was a naivete on
the part of Mr. Nehru to lend unstinted personal support to Sheikh Moh'd
Abdullah for launching the movement.
and other leaders of the National Conference were immediately arrested.Messers
G.M. Bakhshi and G.M. Sadiq fled to Lahore. Mr. J.L. Nehru dashed to Srinagar
for pleading Sheikh Abdullah's case. He was arrested at Kohala Bridge and
he was compelled to go back.
of Maharaja Hari Singh stoutly stood against the breaking of Jammu and
Kashmir State but Maharaja Hari Singh earned the deep rooted enemity of
Mr. Nehru and his coterie in the Indian National Congress. India at that
time was moving towards a communal holocaust.
India was partitioned
into dominions of India and Pakistan from 15th August, 1947, as per Indian
Independence Act, 1947, which after having been passed by the British Parliament
received assent of the British Monarch in August, 1947. As per provisions
of the Indian Independence Act, with the lapsing of the British paramountcy
all the native princely states became independent with sovereignty vesting
in the ruling prince. Princes were free to accede to any dominion and Maharaja
of Jammu and Kashmir, under whatever circumstances, aceeded to the Dominion
of India. If this accession is challenged then the existence of Pakistant
is also to be challenged.
was in prison. Lord Mountbatten alsoo paid a visit to Kashmir in July,
l947. Mr. Nehru's ill will towards Maharaja Hari Singh contracted at the
time of Quit Kashmir movement was also a stumbling block. In July, 1947,
Pandit Ramchander Kak, Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, went to Delhi
to ascertain the modalities of accession. Sardar Patel told him that he
did not want accession of Kashmir against peoples' will.
Singh had no evil intention. He sent emissaries to Sheikh Abdullah
while he was in jail. Sheikh Abdullah again showed himself as a Machiavellian
politician. He addressed a letter dated September 26,1947, to Maharaja
Hari Singh begging pardon and in the last para stating: "Before I close
this letter I beg to assure your Highness once again of my steadfast loyalty
and pray that God under your Highness' aegis bring such an era of peace,
prosperity and good government that it may be second to none and be an
ideal for others to copy. This was the second time Sheikh Abdullah begged
pardon of Maharaja Hari Singh. The first was in 1931.
showed his magnanimity. He got Sheikh Abdullah released only after two
days i.e. on 29th of September, 1947.
Agreement and Pakistan Invasion
Right up from
Quit Kashmir movement in April, 1946, Maharaja was feeling that he was
spurned by Congress leaders. To enable himself to weigh in a judicious
manner the pros and cons of any type of relationship with either India
or Pakistan or with both he needed time. He, therefore, sent a telegram
to Governors General of both the countries for a Standstill Agreement for
6 months. However, Pakistan Army had already planned seizure of Kashmir
by force under the code name "Operation Gulmarg". 500,000 tribals and army
personnel were moving towards the borders of Jammu and Kashmir. Along the
Jammu border nearly 20,000 Hindus and Sikhs were slaughtered. 5000 women
were taken away and a large number of them were raped and tortured. When
30,000 refugees conglomerated in Jammu Province there was a backlash from
Hindus. At Muzaffarabad there was a small army contingent of the State
under Major Narayan. It had Muslims and Dogras in equal numbers. Muslims
mutinied and killed all the Dogras alongwith Major Narayan. By this time
i.e. October 22, 1947, large mass of tribesmen, army men in plain clothes
armed with sophisticated weapons were moving along Rawalpindi-Murree-Baramulla
Road. Maharaja Hari Singh ordered Brigadier Rajender Singh with only 150
men to halt the enemy who were moving like ants towards Srinagar. The then
Prime Minister of J&K State Mr. Meherchand Khanna wrote to Sardar Patel:
"Practically the whole of our Muslim military and police has eighter deserted
or has not behaved in the proper manner. The help which you promised has
not arrived. We are surrounded on all sides."
Singh counts among the greatest soldiers of the world. With only 150 men
he delayed the advance of the enemy by 3 days. He died on October 25, 1947,
and the truculent marauders, who had already left a trial of slaughter,
arson, loot and rape, advanced on the dead body of Brigadier Rajender Singh.
In the first
week of October '47 Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah had sent an emissary (Mr. G.M.
Sadiq) to Pakistan to discuss with its leaders the future of J&K
State. While Mr. G.M. Sadiq was on his return journey having discussed
the matter with the Prime Minister of Pakistan he came to know of the clandestine
agression of Pakistan whose rapacious tribal shooters and army personnel
had already penetrated deep into the boundaries of the J&K State. The
National Conference leaders considered it a breach of trust and a challenge
to the self-respect of Kashmiris and since the organisation was deeply
entrenched at the grass-root level amongst the masses the entire population
was electrified with repulsion for Pakistan. There was resistance everywhere
offered to the advancing enemy and the slogan was: Hamla-awar Khabardar,
Ham Kashmiri hain tayar (Beware Aggressor, we Kashmiris are ready to defeat
By 2nd October
Pakistani tribal marksmen and army regulars arrived at the outskirts of Srinagar. Was it advisable for Maharaja Hari Singh to stay in
Supposing he was killed or captured who would sign the Instrument of Accession
as per provisions of the Indian Independence Act. The Maharaja was advised
by Lord Mountbatten to leave Srinagar. So he left Srinagar during night.
The whole of Srinagar had been plunged into night darkness as the invaders
had blasted power house at Mohra.
On 26th October,
1947, Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession. It was forwarded
to the Government of India. In the covering letter Maharaja mentioned that
notwithstanding that Pakistan had accepted the Standstill Agreement it
cut off supplies like food, salt and petrol to the State and pushed into
its boundaries afridis (tribals), soldiers in plain clothes and desperadoes
armed with most modern weapons. It was indicated that the agressor had
infiltrated at several points along the boundary. Maharaja further added
that the Mohra Power House which supplied electricity to Srinagar had been
blasted and the aggressor had indulged in wanton destruction of life and
property and kidnapping and raping of women had been going on unchecked.
Maharaja further stated that for saving his people he had no option but
to accede to the Dominion of India. Maharaja concluded his letter by requesting
immediate assistance for saving the State. Instrument of Accession was
accepted by the Government of India on October 27,1947 and Indian troops
set foot in Srinagar on the same day to drive away the Satanic invaders.
Lord Mountbatten on being informed of the landing of Indian troops at Srinagar
wrote to Sardar Patel: "there is no doubt that if we could have sent our
forces a fortnight ago....the position could have been held with comparative
Maharaja Hari Singh
kept Kashmir Affairs within PMO which was resented to by Sardar Patel.
Shri Nehru snubbed him by stating that as Prime Minister he had to bring
co-ordination of various ministries.
Singh continued to be the constitutional Head of the State. He appointed
Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah as the Nagion e-alia. However, Maharaja wanted
his nominee Meher Chand Khanna to preside over cabinet meetings. Sheikh
Abdullah flouted this idea. When the matter was brought to the notice of
Shri J.L. Nehru he dubbed Maharaja Hari Singh as "terribly short-sighted"
an obnoxious epithet. Such epithets Mr. Nehru often used against his opponents.
Finally, Sardar Patel was used for the ouster of Maharaja Hari Singh.
Maharaja by stating that in view of the peculiar situation obtaining at
that time and because of reference to UNO and Plebscite issue he should
absent himself from the State and make Yuvraj Karan Singh his Regent. Maharaja
receded from the field never to return.
1947, Indian troops had cleared Kashmir Valley of Pakistani regulars and
armed bandits who had left behind a trail of unprecedented death and devastation.
On November 16, 1947, Sher-i-Kashmir Sheikh Moh'd Abdullah had said, "These
raiders abducted women. They massacred children. They looted everything
and every one. They converted mosques into brothels and today every Kashmiri
loathes the invading tribesmen and their arch inspirers who have been responsible
for such horrors in a land which is peopled with an overwhelming majority
It was on the
advice of Lord Mountbatten as admitted by him in his letter dated August
15,1948, that the aggression committed by Pakistan was referred to the
UN Security Council. It was again Lord Mountbatten who advised Mr. Nehru
not to risk war for retaking the territory of J&K State occupied by
Pakistan. He frightened Mr. Nehru that such a step might force U.N.O. to
The issue of
Pakistani armed intervention in Kashmir was referred to the UN Security
Council on March 18, 1948. After a long debate in the Security Council,
it was decided to send a Commission to India. The UN Commission arrived
in Delhi in March 1948 and had talks with the governments of India and
Pakistan. Pakistan admitted that its armies were fighting in Kashmir.
On August 13,1948,
the Security Council adopted a resolution proposing cessation of hostilities
and asking Pakistan to vacate the territory it occupied and restoring to
the Government of India jurisdiction over the entire State of Jammu and
Kashmir and thereafter arranging for a fair and impartial plebiscite. India
was required to withdraw the bulk of its forces only after it was notified
by the Commission that Pakistan had totally withdrawn its forces, personnel
and nationals from the State. It was, therefore, the duty of the UN Commission
to ensure that Pakistan did completely withdraw its forces and personnel
and nationals from the State. The Commission subsequently assured India
that the plebiscite proposal would not be binding upon India if the Pakistan
did not withdraw its forces from the State.
From 1949 onwards,
Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, called Sher-e-Kashmir, who had launched a communal
agitation in 1931 and the Quit Kashmir Movement in 1946 to wrench away
Muslim-majority areas of Kashmir Province from the State, started to consolidate
his grip over the entire State.
became effective in January 1949, but Abdullah was mentally succumbing
to his former ideologies. The conflict was becoming irresistible. The sovereignty
of the State after the departure of the British Raj vested in Maharaja
Hari Singh. After getting himself appointed by the Maharaja as the Prime
Minister, he succeeded in catapulting the Maharaja out of the field of
influence through the grace of Pandit Nehru and the bullying tactics of
In an interview
with Michael Davidson published in Scotsman of April 14, 1949, Abdullah
said: "Accession to either side cannot bring peace. We want to live in
peace with both the dominions; perhaps a middle path between them will
be the only way of doing it. But an independent Kashmir must be guaranteed
by Britain, the USA and other members of the U.N." So Abdullah (like the
Maharaja who was initially for independence) was dreaming of an independent
370 in Indian Constitution
Assembly was framing the Constitution of India. Abdullah was nominated
in it as the Member, with three others, to represent Kashmir. He wanted
quite a distinct position for the State in the Constitution. He wanted
the entire State to be a republic within a republic. Patel felt a bit baffled.
On October 16, 1949, he wrote to Shri Gopalaswamy Ayyangar: "Whenever Sheikh
Sahib wishes to back out, he always confronts us with his duty towards
the people. Of course, he owes no duty to India or to the Indian Government
or even on personal basis to you and the Prime Minister who have gone all
out to accommodate him...."
a threatening letter to Ayyangar on October 17, 1949, which in conclusion
stated: "In case I fail to hear from you within a reasonable time, I regret
to say that no course is left open but to tender our resignation from the
Constituent Assembly." Nehru succumbed to pressure and got Article 370
inserted in the Constitution as a temporary measure. Abdullah failed to
have any regard for the people of Ladakh or the people of the Jammu region.
sprouted as a hefty tree bearing poisonous seeds of secession and separatism
and paranoid hatred which the winds of time have been scattering all over
India. These poisonous seeds began to germinate in the soils of Tamil Nadu,
West Bengal, Bihar, Panjab, the North-East and at many other places. The
political thinking of the constituents of the United Front, now in power
in India, is the paranoid effect of the gases which these germinating trees
are exhaling into the atmosphere.
and is a distinct entity. It is a region of barren crags and sand dust.
The redoubtable valour of Gen. Zoarawar Singh was instrumental in annexing
this region to the kingdom of Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1841. The Ladakh
Buddhist Association had submitted a memorandam to the Indian Prime Minister
in 1947 and later in 1949 seeking a separate set-up for Ladakh under the
direct control of the Central Government.
a predominantly Hindu area was in a trauma in 1948. Due to truculent Pakistani
and tribal forays launched in October 1947, more than 30,000 Hindus had
been killed, 5000 women had been raped and the same number of women had
been kidnapped. About 30,000 Hindus and Sikhs had fled to Jammu and were
accommodated in refugee camps. These uprooted persons are still refugees
because the State Government dominated by Kashmiri Muslims are not willing
to grant them citizenship. To cover up the atrocities committed by Pakistani
aggressors and Muslims in border areas, Abdullah made thundering speeches
about the massacre of Muslims in Jammu proper for which he was holding
the Dogras and the RSS responsible. No commission was ever constituted
to ascertain the facts. There might have been a moderate backlash in Jammu
because of large killings of Hindus and Muslims in borders areas but Abdullah
again and again spoke of a massacre of Muslims in Jammu. However, the massacre
of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims started only when Pakistan pushed tribal desperadoes
and armymen into the State with a view to annexing it by sheer force. Till
that time the State was peaceful and the credit for that goes to Maharaja
had committed himself for an impartial plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir,
he had no raison d'etre to push through the passage and implementation
of the Big Landed Establishment Abolition Act Samvat 2007 (1950) under
which land was transferred to the tenants but no compensation was paid
to the proprietors. It allowed big landlords to retain 182 kanals with
a right to one-fourth of the share of produce without grass. This deprived
a good number of Kashmiri Pandits (residing mostly in cities and towns)
and 30,000 Dogra Rajputs of their land holdings without compensation. Muslim
landowners had no difficulty in showing themselve as self- cultivators.
Dogras leave Kashmir
Many Kashmiri Pandits, who had no sustenance except small land holdings, began moving
out of Kashmir. More than 30,000 Dogra Rajputs also left Kashmir. Today
all politicians, MLAs, MPs, VIPs and IAS officers and judges, tehsildars
and even patwaris have the ownership, either in their own name or in the
name of their close relatives, of vast stretches of agricultural land out
of which a sizable portion has been converted into orchards. In 1975, another
agrarian reforms act couched in the language of Muslim personal law was
passed which enabled the new-fangled Muslim elite to consolidate their
hold on vast stretches of orchard land. In 1990, the income from this land
amounted to Rs. 90 crore.
the political status of the State, especially when the matter was under
the consideration of the U.N., was Abdullah justified in passing the act.
Just like Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Abdullah proved cleverer than all the combined
leadership of India.
not give up the habit of making vituperative harangues against Maharaja
Hari Singh and the Dogras. He often raised the bogey of Muslims ceasing
to trust India and going away to Pakistan. Dr. Karan Singh, the sole scion
of the dynasty of Maharaja Gulab Singh and a votary of Sri Aurobindo, swallowed
everything. He is more concerned about his vast properties.
phantom of Muslims ceasing to trust India, Shri Syama Prasad Mookerjee
wrote to Abdullah on February 13, 1953, that ".. if 4 crore Muslims in
India can be expected to live with safety and honour under the Constitution,
why should 30 lakh Muslims in Kashmir, who will be the majority community
in their State, be in a mood to go out of India, unless they honestly feel
that their future lies with an Islamic country such as Pakistan. Secular
democracy cannot develop by following the method of the marketplace."
a Constituent Assembly elected for the State in 1951. It had 75 members,
all elected unopposed. Nomination papers of most of the candidates were
rejected and the severest axe fell on the candidates sponsored by the Praja
Parishad, a party founded by Pandit Prem Nath Dogra. The Constituent Assembly
framed a separate Constitution for the State providing for a separate President
(Sadr- e-Riyasat), a separate Prime Minister, a separate flag and separate
to Muslim Vote
was making all types of topsy-turvey moves which went counter to the avowed
concepts of a secular democracy. In Kashmir, the number of voters in an
assembly constituency was 73,000 whereas in Jarnmu it was 93,000, thus
giving more weightage to the Muslim vote. The border districts in Jammu
were redemarcated on communal lines which showed its results during the
current terrorist insurgency. There was interference in the working of
the Dharamarth Trust founded by Maharaja Ranjit Singh for the management
of Hindu shrines and temples in the State. A special permit system was
introduced for the Indians for entering the State. There was a separate
customs duty. A paramilitary organisation called the National Militia had
been raised from amongst diehard National Conference workers of the Valley.
The force consisted of Muslim recruits only.
By the first
half of 1952, much of the Sheikh's charisma had faded away because he employed
ruthless methods to suppress dissent. The people were detained without
trial and the police under SP Ghulam Qadir Ganderbali used third-degree
methods. He thought that excessive repression was necessitated because
Pakistan by commissioning so- called Azad Kashmir Radio was blaring out
most heinous and villainous propaganda on atrociously communal lines to
the people of the Valley. This was in contravention of Part II-A of the
UN Resolution of August 13, 1948.
In June 1952,
an Indian correspondent reported an utterance of Sheikh Abdullah which
smacked of an independent state and not independent Kashmir. The people
of Jammu region and the Buddhists of Ladakh got a bit shaking. In July
1952, he entered into an agreement with the Central Government which envisaged
integration of the State not only in respect of defence, foreign relations
and communications but also in respect of financial and some selected matters.
He treated Indian leaders as footlings and took his own time for implementing
the Delhi Agreement of July 1952 and adopted dilly- dallying tactics.
of Jammu under the leadership of Prem Nath Dogra decided to launch a do-or-die
struggle. They wanted that the question of accession should be treated
as settled or decided once for all and not left to an uncertain future.
The second question that took precedence was to recover one- third of the
territory occupied by Pakistan through wanton aggression. The Jammu people
were very much fed up with the UN. They felt that it was a forum for big
power rivalry. It took the UN no time to brand North Korea as an aggressor
when North Koreans made a foray into South Korea by crossing the 38th Parallel.
President Trueman even went to the extent of using nuclear weapons to teach
North Korea and China a lesson but, in the case ot Kashmir, they were giving
more privileges to the aggressor Pakistan and treating India at par with
of Jammu were flabbergasted at the attitude of Sheikh Abdullah who was
not only delaying the integration of the State in respect of such subjects
as defence, foreign affairs and communications but also creating a unique
type of sovereignty for Kashmir. They were eager to see the integration
of the State in respect of such subjects as fundamental rights, rights
of citizenship, jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, the functions and constitution
of high courts, the President's powers, national planning, financial integration
and the conduct of elections. There was also mistrust owing to the non-implementation
of the Delhi Agreement of 1952.
about 30,000 Hindu and Sikh refugees from border areas who had fled to
Jammu at the time of Pakistani raids. They were being treated as foreigners.
Lakhs of Sikh and Hindu refugees who had fled West Pakistan and flooded
East Punjab and Delhi had been totally absorbed as Indian citizens by the
Punjab and Central governments but those who had entered the state were
being treated as foreigners and till date they are bereft of citizenship.
in Dharamarth Trust
Government was also tending to make inroads into the working of Dharamarth
Trust. This was unplatable and the leaders of the Praja Parishad under
all dispensations wanted provincial autonomy for Jammu and Ladakh.
There was the
question of Indian Tricolour - whether it would fly atop the seat of the
government at Srinagar and Jammu. Abdullah had decided to make the National
Conference's red flag with a white plough as the flag of the State Government.
During the Praja Parishad agitation, Syama Prasad Mookerjee had rightly
written to Abdullah on February 13, 1953, that "India has been torn into
two by the two-nation theory. You are now developing a three-nation theory,
the third being the Kashmiri nation."
11, 1953, the State Legislative Assembly elected Dr. Karan Singh as
On November 22, 1953, he moved to Jammu from Srinagar and the Praja Parishad
launched an agitation starting with a black flag demonstration against
The Praja Parishad
movement spread like wild fire. The watchword of the struggle was Ek Bidhan,
Ek Pradhan, Ek Nishan (One Constitution, One President, One Flag) for the
entire country. As the agitation assumed torrential proportions, both the
State and the Central Government were shaken. Pt. Nehru and Sheikh Abdullah
termed the agitation as extremely harmful, communal and bigoted. The state
machinery flung into action. The Indian police and the state police got
full powers for using batons and bullets against the demonstrators.
spread to all the districts of Jammu. There were widespread demonstrations.
Pt. Nehru and Sheikh Abdullah had no qualms to use the maximum of force.
As we have at present, there were no human rights activists. Hundreds of
people fell before bullets. Nearly 20 people were killed. Abdullah seemed
to avenge the deaths that occurred on July 13, 1931, at Srinagar. Repression,
imprisonments, leathicharges and bullets became the order of the day. Sheikh
Abdullah's National Militia ran berserk at places and did not hesitate
to commit outrages on women. The properties of many persons were confiscated
and the pensions of many people were withheld. All that the crowds demanded
was the supremacy of the Indian President, the supremacy of the Indian
Constitution and the supremacy of the Indian Flag. They wanted that the
question or accession of the State to the Indian Union should not be left
to the mercy of fluctuating winds. They wanted the maximum integration
of the State with India and provincial autonomy for all the three regions
of the State. Pt. Nehru employed the Preventive Detention Act for suppressing
demonstrations in other states expressing sympathy with the people of Jammu.
The whole of Jammu province became a boiling pot of tyranny and suppression.
Mookerjee wrote several letters to Sheikh Abdullah and Pandit Jawaharlal
Nehru but mostly received bluff and invectives. In his letter dated February
4, 1953, Sheikh Abdullah admitted that conditions for impartial plebiscite
had not been provided but added that Kashmiri Muslims would not falter
from their ideals even if they are left alone in this great battle of secularism
and human brotherhood. These were all hollow words only to obfuscate the
mind of the opponent.
When the State
offices moved to Srinagar in May 1953, Shri Mookerjee wanted to discuss
the matter with Sheikh Abdullah at Srinagar. Encouraged by Nehru, he had
made Jammu and Kashmir a state within a state. There was the entry permit
system in vogue for allowing Indian citizens to enter the State. Shri Mookerjee,
who was denied permission to enter the State, defied the ban and entered
the State. He was arrested and kept at Chashma Shahi Guest House. How he
was treated or served food God only knows. He developed a strange type
of allergy and breathed his last in S.M.H.S. Hospital. How he was killed
and by whom, nobody knows.
Today we have
commissions probing into the death of late Rajiv Gandhi but the death of
Shri Mookerjee was treated as the death of a washout. Maybe, a probe would
reveal a conspiracy to finish him up. Maybe, Nehru-Abdullah-Mookerjee correspondence
exchanged during the agitation would throw up some conspiratorial angle.
Everything was hushed up and the agitation on his mysterious death was
ruthlessly suppressed. It was ensured that even a tiny spark was put out.
Abdullah launched the Quit Kashmir Movement in 1946 to wrench away Kashmir
from the Dogra rule, Pt. Nehru rushed to his assistance but was arrested
at Kohala Bridge by the security forces of Maharaja Hari Singh. He was
requested to go back and he did go back. When after 7 years, Shri Mookerjee,
defying the ban for the sake of integrity of India, went to meet Sheikh
Abdullah he was done to death.
gave his life for the integrity of India. Subsequently, his own people
forgot him. The political party he had founded was relegated to the limbo
of a unpleasant past. His disciples began to wag to new situations with
a fresh gusto and crisp rhetoric.
The Praja Parishad
Movement was the first movement after independence aimed at ensuring the
unity and integrity of India. In its scope, it was more important than
the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 which was triggered by a smarting hurt to deep-rooted
religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims.
One of the
moving figures of the Praja Parishad Movement was Pandit Makhan Lal Harkara
who passed away only this year - an irreparable loss to the Kashmiri Pandit
in thc depth of its vision was of greater import than the freedom struggle
which culminated in the division of the country and loss and subversion
of millions of lives. It aimed at ensuring the integral unity of India.
But Pt. Nehru ensured to suppress it totally. Today we see what has been
the result of nurturing and watering Article 370 and Sheikh Abdullah. Every
State of importance, at one time or the other, has been tbreatening to
secede from the Indian Union. During the 13 days of the BJP Government,
when the vote of confidence was being discussed in Parliament, Shri Murasoli
Maran of the DMK confronted the BJP and derisively scoffed at their talk
of one country and one people. Whatever Shri Maran has to say, the Siva
temple at Tanjore built by Raja the Great is a symbol of Indian unity.
Regional parties are now acting centrifugally and what is now in store
for India, only future can unfold. The politicians at the helm of affairs
are pampering terrorists as their "own children" or misguided youth. All
these utterances smack of cowardice. In fact the Hindu psyche was tempered
into the masochist mould during the 1,000 years of the Muslim rule when
at times persecution reached its zenith and Hindus were deprived of every
vestige of citizenship rights.
It is surprising
that Shri Jagmohan in his book "My Frozen Turbulence" has hardly given
any account of the Praja Parishad Movement of 1953. In this way, he has
tried to be irresponsible as a historian.
The BJP bosses
at Jammu, Shri Chaman Lal Gupta, Vaidya Vishnu Dutt, Shri Bhagwat Swarup
and others, have never strived to publish a properly documented book on
the Movement with a special reference to Nehru-Mookerjee-Abdullah correspondence.
The party has its of fice in the heart of the city donated by Pt. Prem
Nath Dogra, founder of the Parishad. The whole property is worth more than Rs. 50
lakh. At least in deference to Pt. Dogra, they should have published
such a book.
It was rumoured
that the death of Shri Mookerjee under the State's custody made Sheikh
Abdullah to pass many sleepless nights. After the event, he made the sharpest
possible utterances at various places. He wanted to seize the earliest
opportunity by the forelock to wrench away the State whether the people
of Jammu and Ladakh liked it or not.
On August 8,
1953, Sheikh Abdullah went to Gulmarg and stayed in a posh hotel with his
trusted lieutenants. Rumours were doing the rounds that CIA agents and
British Intelligence detectives had infested the area. It was rumoured
that, on August 9, 1953, he would make a declaration about the independent
State and America and Britain would rush to guarantee that declaration.
As Sheikh Abdullah
was coming down from Gulmarg towards Srinagar, he was arrested alongwith
his lieutenants by the State Government. The arrest warrant was signed
by the Sadr-e-Riyasat. Despite widespread violence, Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed
took over as the Prime Minister of the State.
Ten years of
Bakshi's rule saw a spate of construction works. Dissent was suppressed
with a iron hand. The people became prosperous. Indigenous industry flourished
and tourism picked up. Many housing colonies sprouted. However, during
his regime the forest cover of the State suffered maximum diminution.
On August 23,
1963, Pandit Nehru induced the Bakshi to resign under the Kamaraj Plan
and Shri Shamas-ud-din took over.
had been working only for few months when during the night of 26th and
27th of December, 1963, the Holy Relic was found missing at Hazratbal Dargah.
The entire Valley was plunged into a vioient commotion. However, there
were no communal riots. Kashmiri Pandits sincerely joined Muslims in expressing
shock and trauma at the loss of the Relic and fervently participated in
demonstrations and marches for its recovery at the earliest. The Central
and the State governments had traumatic experiences. However, the holy
Relic was recovered and its genuineness established.
tenure of Shri Shamas-ud-din, the State Assembly passed an amendment to
the State's Constitution whereby Article 356 of the Constitution of India
became applicable to the State. During a span of 15 years from 1948, Pakistan
prodded the Security Council to take up the Kashmir issue. Because of India's
independent foreign policy and close bilateral relationship with the then
Soviet Union, the Anglo-American bloc led by the USA had developed a chronic
apathy for it. Resolutions were moved to activate the Security Council
Resolution of 1948 but the USSR blocked the moves by exercising veto. The
of Accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh under the provisions of the
British Independence Act of 1947 is final and irrevocable. If it is not
final, then the existence of Pakistan is also temporary. Pakistan or Bangaldesh
were part of British India before August 15,1947, and if India treats the
British Independence Act as a scrap of paper and has sufficient striking
power, it has every justification to annex Pakistan. When sovereignty is
not under dispute, the UN has no jurisdiction to arbitrate upon the right
The State Assembly
has no locus standi to affirm or deny the Instrument of Accession signed
by the Maharaja and accepted by the Government of India. The Governor-General
of India, while accepting it, has not appended any condition whatsoever
to its acceptance.
8, 1964, Shri Ghulam Mohammad Sadiq became the Prime Minister of Jammu
and Kashmir. He maintained a low profile and allowed the freedom of expression,
and political activities of all sorts and was not averse to Jamaat-e-Islami
trimming its activities. It was he who brought about closer ties between
the State and the country by making various provisions of the Indian Constitution
applicable to the State. He changed the nomenclature of the Sadr-e-Riyasat
to the Governor and the Prime Minister of the State to the Chief Minister.
He also established a branch of Indian National Congress in the State and
Syed Mir Qasim was elected its President. Moreover, he got Sheikh Abdullah
and his colleagues released from jail.
With the release
of Sheikh Abdullah, the activities of the Plebiscite Front, established
by Mirza Afzal Beg, the most trusted lieutenant of SheikhAbdullah, in 1958,
intensified its activities. Shri Sadiq believed that opposite forces could
be neutralized not by extreme suppression but by allowing them to play
their role to a certain extent.
was allowed to visit Pakistan. During these days, the Congress session
was in full swing at Bhubaneshwar and Pt. Nehru was attending it. Perhaps
being upset by the Sheikh's bitter demogogic harangues in Pakistan, he
suffered a stroke which kept him wrecked up to his death on May 27, 1964.
Abdullah was rearrested on April 29, 1958, objectionable papers endorsing
Pakistani line of action were recovered from his residence. A case of conspiracy
was filed against him in an appropriate court. During the hearings of the
case, statements before the court were dangerously anti- India and stood
in sharp contrast to his utterances in 1948.
In his book
titled: "The Crisis Game by Sydney," F. Fiffin (1965) we find an account
of two fictional crisis exercises codenamed Cuba and Kashmir 1966 conducted
by Institute of Defence Analyses, Washington D.C. in February 1965, envisaging
a war between India and Pakistan in September 1966. There was deliberate
shifting of the calendar year by one year while hostilities between India
and Pakistan broke out on September 1,1965. This shows that planning of
a Pakistani attack on Kashmir was planned by the US Strategic Intelligence.When
the hostilities actually broke out, China attacked India in Sikkim. The
USA intervened to bring hostilities to an end.
In his book
Spy For All Seasons; My Life In CIA, Mr. Duane R. Clarridge who operated
in Madras and Delhi in 1964 gives an account of how aggression in 1965
on Kashmir by Pakistan was carried out with the prior approval of Sheikh
Abdullah. After having been set free in 1964, he went to Saudi Arabia for
performing Haj. Mr. Clarridge states that he went to contact Sheikh Abdullah
at Jeddah where he gave him (Mr. Clarridge) the whole view of Pakistani
warplan on Kashmir. As per Mr. Clarridge, Sheikh stated: "The Pakistanis
were going to begin infiltrating small guerilla units out of Azad Kashmir
into Kashmir proper. These units would then begin to stir things up. Once
the insurrection got under way in Kashmir, regular Pakistani military forces
would come to Kashmir's aid."
In April 1965,
to bewilder Indian strategists, Pakistan struck in the Rann of Kutch with
Patton tanks in violation of the assurance given by the US President and
the Secretary of State that US military equipment would not be used against
India. India brought the deployment and use of Patton tanks by Pakistan
in the Rann of Kutch to the notice of US Government but it ignored the
before the outbreak of hostilities on September I,1965, thousands of armed
guerillas of Pakistan infiltrated into Kashmir on the western side. They
followed their usual pattern of loot and human slaughter. However, timely
information about it was supplied to the Government by some Gujjar leaders.
The entire Gujjar population treated infiltrators with resentment. The
rural population also did not cooperate with them and were loath to entertain
them with chickens, eggs and rice. There were some skirmishes at Batmalloo
and Bemina in Srinagar. Some policemen died in grenade attacks.
Take to Heels
the tactical handling by Shri Sadiq and his colleagues and non-cooperation
by the local population made the infiltrators take to their heels through
forests of Gulmarg. The fleeing infiltrators also kindnapped one or two
Kashmiri Pandits whose whereabouts remained untraced.
Gen. Ayub Khan
was very much dismayed at the failure of his plan to create Vietnam-like
conditions in Kashmir because he lent his full weightage to the participation
of the Kashmiri populace for stirring up insurrection in the State. So
he resorted to actual warfare and struck at various points along the Ceasefire
Line (of 1949) on September 1, 1965. At Chamb-Jaurian, he made a great
display of the Patton tanks. However, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri's
decision to counter-strike at Lahore and the exemplary skill and valour
of ourArmoured Brigade brought the Pakistani aggression in Kashmir to an
end. This was the second aggression. The first was in October 1947, when
Pakistan was able to occupy by force, fraud and bloodshed one-third of
the State's territory.
by the Kashmiris with Pakistani infiltrators might have been rankling in
the mind of Gen. Zia-ul-Haq. Reacting to massive demonstrations in Kashmir
when ZulfiqarAli Bhutto was hanged in Pakistan, he had remarked: "Kashmiri
Muslims are Brahmins."
Gen. Ayub Khan
was displeased with the USA and fell in the trap of Russian good offices
which culminated in the Indo-Pak summit at Tashkent where the President
of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India signed the Tashkent Declaration.
In fact, the Tashkent agreement appears to project the Ceasefire Line (of
1949) as a permanent international border between India and Pakistan.
however, proved doom for him and he was replaced by Gen. Yahya Khan.
appeared to have been disappointed by the defeat of Pakistan in the 1965
war and the signing of Tashkent Declaration. Probably, his thoughts began
working backwards. The political frame of his mind appeared like a chameleon.
So his reactions and utterances after 1966 lent one colour to the Government
of India and of another to the people of Kashmir.
The UN Commission
for India and Pakistan totally failed in its avowed obligation under Part
II B of the Kashmir Resolution of August 13, 1948, to notify the Government
of India that Pakistan had not only withdrawn its forces but also tribesmen
and Pakistani nationals referred to in Part II A, 2 of the resolution.
The UN rendered itself impotent because it failed in its moral and legal
responsibility to persuade Pakistan to vacate the occupied territories.
During the last 49 years, Pakistan rendered UN resolutions completely defunct
by the following acts:
(a) It surrendered nearly 6000 square miles of the State's territory to
China for building Karakoram Road to facilitate the Chinese to rush troops
to the Indian borders as and when required.
(b) It seized the northern parts of Kashmir by force after decimating the
torces of Maharaja Hari Singh and allowed the Americans to build the most
advanced radar complex in Gilgit. This part of Kashmir has borders with
Afghanistan, Russia and China.
(c) It increased its military strength in the occupied territories by leaps
and bounds in violation of Part I, B of the Resolution of August 13, 1948.
(d) It violated Part I, E of the UN Resolution by continuously indulging
in vicious propaganda against India.
(e) It failed to derecognize the so-called Azad Kashmir Government.
rights for a plebiscite vested in the population which existed in and around
1948. During the last 49 years, lakhs of people who had the right to vote
in 1948 have died and more than 25 lakh people who nurtured the fundamentalist
ideology have been added to the population. It is, therefore against law
and natural justice to talk of plebiscite after 49 years.
rendered the UN Resolutions defunct by launching a full-scale attack on
Jammu and Kashmir in 1965 and then signing the Tashkent agreement.
Mr Gunar Jarring
of the UN Commission after visiting India and Pakistan in the late fifties
reported that the UN Resolutions of 1948 and 1949 had been rendered irrelevant
because of the changed logistical and strategical dispositions in the area.