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An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri

Panun Kashmir

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Kaal Chakra

Long long ago, at the foot of Himalayas across river Sarada, there was a village called Manjihara. There lived a poor potter and his wife named Harihar and Chandrawati. They had a son Vansraj, but he was no more living with them. After his marriage with Devakala, Vansraj had shifted to his in-laws place leaving his parents to fend for themselves. Devakala was the only child of her wealthy parents. After their death, Devakala inherited all their wealth and property. Devakala and Vansraj lived a luxurious life, while Harihar and Chandrawati made a hard living by making earthen dolls and pots.

Harihar and Chandrawati had no grouse against their son. Though they were deeply hurt by his action, they took it as their fate. Harihar had a small house to live in, which he inherited from his father. He also had a younger brother named Harbhajan. Harihar had brought him up after their parents' death, but Harbhajan turned a vagabond. He decamped with Harihar's savings, whatever little was left with him, immediately after Vansraj deserted his parents. It was believed that Harbhajan had gone to other side of the mountains for better prospects, though his exact whereabouts were not known.

One day, when Harihar and his wife were about to have their morning meals, a beggar came that way. He asked for some food. Beggar looked famished and Harihar immediately offered him his plate of food. The beggar voraciously ate the food and prayed for Harihar's prosperity. Harihar only smiled. He knew, there was nothing in his fate to cheer about.

Next day, it rained heavily throughout the day forcing Harihar to stay indoors. Harihar had exhausted his stock of potter's earth. He needed to get fresh stock but the best stuff was available only across the river Sarada. "It would not be possible to cross the river as the water must have risen due to heavy rains", Harihar thought. He had no choice but to wait.

Harihar waited impatiently. He had received an order for one dozen earthen dolls and had to deliver them to the client next day. Rains stopped late in the evening. Harihar and Chandrawati left with an empty sack, a shovel and a flaming torch. On reaching the river, they found the water level very high. It was not possible to cross the river. They dug out the earth, though of an inferior quality, from a near by spot. On reaching home, Harihar got started with his work while Chandrawati lit the chulha to cook food.

The client came to collect his order next day. He carefully inspected the dolls and rejected one of them, finding some defect with its eyes. Harihar did not argue. He had himself observed the defect, but every time he took the doll in his hands to correct the defect, its eyes looked perfectly well. This was a mystery for Harihar. He placed the doll in a corner.

Harihar & Chandrawati were fast asleep, when Chandrawati woke up hearing wails of a child. She lit the lamp and looked around. There was no one except the two of them in the room. Assuming it as her imagination, she put out the lamp and went to bed again. Next night, Chandrawati heard the wails again. She was scared. She woke up her husband and told him about it. Harihar looked around but there was none. He pacified Chandrawati, assuming that she must have had a bad dream.

As soon as they put out the lamp, Harihar himself heard the cries. He was terrified. He lit the lamp once again and was amazed to find the wailing sounds emanating from the doll placed in the corner of the room. He took a close look. Tears were rolling down the doll's eyes. Harihar and Chandrawati were about to flee, when they heard a voice saying, "Please don't leave me alone. I am Vishu. Please listen to me." Harihar and Chandrawati, though horror-stricken, came closer. Voice from the doll continued, "I hail from village Rundhwa. Long time ago, I was kidnapped by my step-brother Kaliprasad and murdered at the river bank. He did this to grab my property. He consigned my body to flames at the spot from where you dug out the earth. My death was untimely, so my soul kept wandering in that area. When you carried the earth containing my ashes, I followed you. I then decided to take refuge in one of the dolls that you moulded from the earth. You can bring me back to life if you so wish. And if you do so, I promise to serve you all through my life".

Harihar and Chandrawati were dumb struck. Gathering his composure, Harihar thought for a while and replied, "I am willing to do as you like, but how can I be sure that you don't harm us on gaining life". Vishu in the form of the doll replied, "I shall be like your son. How can I harm my parents? Moreover, I will live only if two of you do not reveal my real identity to anyone on your own. And if you do so, my soul will escape leaving behind my dead body." Perplexed Chandrawati enquired, "What if you talk of taking revenge from your step-brother?" Vishu replied, "Once I am resurrected, I shall forget my past. So there is no question of taking revenge."

Harihar and Chandrawati counselled with each other. They felt that they needed a son who would look after them in their old age. "Hence", they thought, "It would be wise to resurrect Vishu back to life." Harihar asked Vishu, "How do we bring you back to life?' Vishu replied, "On the fifth day of the lunar fortnight, you shall have to ascend to the top of Mount Viji. There, you will find a temple of Naagdevta. It has a spring located in its backyard. The Naagdevta's image in the temple is to be given a ceremonial bath with the water collected in a Kamandal from this spring. Part of the water flowing down the image must be collected back and used for bathing me. But you have to make sure that all this is done before the sunrise. This process has to be repeated for three days. On the third day after the bath, you will cover me with the leaves of the banyan tree and leave me alone till the full moon rises in the sky."

The task was arduous and Harihar had a number of doubts. "Would I be able to do as desired by Vishu and that too within the desired time limit?" He was confused and asked Vishu "What if the job is not accomplished in three consecutive days?" Vishu replied, "You may do it up to tenth day of the lunar fortnight, but not more than that". And before Harihar could ask any more questions, doll's eyes became stationary.

Harihar had only two days to make preparations. On one hand, he was not sure of the turn of events after Vishu's resurrection. On the other, he fancied a child playing in his lap and serving him and his wife when he grew up. Harihar and Chandrawati decided to make an attempt and charted out their further course of action.

On the appointed day, he set out from his home just past midnight. He walked as fast as he could and reached top of Mount Viji a couple of hours before dawn. On reaching there, he located the temple and the spring. As desired by Vishu, he collected water from the spring in a Kamandal and gave a ceremonial bath to Naagdevta's image in the temple. Collecting part of the water flowing down the image, he set towards his home. Going down the hill was not difficult but he had to take care not to spill the water from his Kamandal. He reached home a little before sunrise. His wife was eagerly waiting outside. Both of them bathed Vishu - the doll, with the water.

Harihar and Chandrawati repeated this process for the next two days. On the third day, they placed the doll in a corner and covered it with banyan leaves. Satisfied that they had successfully accomplished their job, they left the room. To ensure that no one entered the room, they locked it from outside. They now had to wait till the full moon night.

To ascertain the veracity of Vishu's story, Harihar decided to go to the village Rundhwa, donned as a potter to sell his goods. It took him a full day to reach Rundhwa. On reaching the village he could find accommodation in the house of Satyadev, the village-head. Satyadev had a grown up daughter Rajlakshmi living with him. Rajlakshmi had lost her mother immediately after her birth, and was brought up by her grandmother, who too did not live long. Satyadev could not find a match for his daughter, though she was well past marriageable age. People thought she was carrying misfortune on her head.

Rajlakshmi treated Harihar with respect. Harihar, as he heard her story from Satyadev, felt very sorry for her. He could not believe that an innocent girl could be treated this way by her own villagers. But there was little he could do about it.

Harihar began gathering information about Vishu and his stepbrother Kaliprasad from Satyadev and other villagers in a manner that nobody got suspicious. Harihar was astonished to know that Vishu had suddenly disappeared from the village twenty years back. No one knew where he went and why? Kaliprasad then took control of all his property and lived with great pomp and show. "But this pomp and show of Kaliprasad lasted only a few years when a strange incident took place", Harihar was told.

Satyadev related to harihar, the incident that took place on Dussehra a couple of years after disappearance of Vishu. On this day, in accordance with the tradition, the effigies of Ravana, Kumbhkarna and Meghanatha were being consigned to flames in the open ground. All the villagers including the elite had assembled to watch this ceremonial burning of the effigies. As soon as the effigy of Ravana was lit, Kaliprasad who was sitting with other elite members of the village in the first row, suddenly jumped up and shouted "Vishu is burning, save him". He frantically tried to douse the flames with his hands. "Ever since", Satyadev told Harihar, "He is suffering from hysteria and is in a very pathetic condition. He has a long unkept beard, dirty clothes on his body and keeps wandering from place to place calling out to Vishu". Harihar listened with keen interest.

Next day, while on his usual round of investigation, Harihar happened to see Kaliprasad. He found Kaliprasad in a dishevelled state, continuously muttering, "Did you see my Vishu? He lives there in the skies". Harihar felt sorry for him.

Having ascertained the truthfulness of Vishu's statement, Harihar returned to his village.

On 15th of the lunar fortnight, when the full moon appeared in the sky, Harihar and Chandrawati lit a lamp and unlocked the room. Intrinsic euphoria writ large on their face, they proceeded towards the corner. Removing the leaves one by one, they began uncovering the doll's face. Lo and behold! A sweet little child with a mesmerizing smile looked at them. Excited, Harihar could not believe his eyes. He came closer and held the child in his arms. Chandrawati stood as if in a trance. She took the baby in her arms and fondled it. With the birth of the baby, their joy knew no bounds. In order to keep Vishu's resurrection a secret, Harihar and Chandrawati concocted a story. When the neighbours enquired about Vishu, Harihar told them that he found Vishu at the Naagdevta's temple. Villagers readily accepted this story. They felt that it was God's boon to Harihar and his wife, who were living all alone and had no one to look after them.

Birth of Vishu gave a new lease of life to Harihar and Chandrawati. They forgot all their pains and miseries and were totally involved in the upbringing of their child.

As Vishu grew up, he helped his parents in their professional work and also with the household chores. This gave lot of relief to his old parents. Their income was also augmented and they were a happier lot now.

During his free time, Vishu would go around the village, enquiring about well being of the villagers. If he found anyone in trouble, he would render help in every possible way. He would fetch water from the stream for the old women and play with the young ones. He helped them in cutting and collecting firewood and repairing of their thatched roofs. These gestures made him the darling of the villagers.

As the years passed, Harihar became a rich person. He was elected head of the village and came to be known for his wisdom. People from other villages often visited him to seek his counsel and advice.

It was a tradition for the villagers to hold a fair every year at the banks of river Sarada. Boys and girls of marriageable age from all the neighbouring villages would gather on a specified day and select their partners from amongst the contenders. Vishu had turned sixteen and his parents desired to get him married. They asked him to participate in the fair. Indra, daughter of Bhadriprasad of the village Jamtal, selected Vishu from amongst a score of contenders. Vishu was equally impressed by her beauty. Vishu and Indra were thus married with the blessings of their parents.

Two years later, Indra gave birth to a baby girl. Harihar and Chandrawati were overjoyed at the arrival of the baby girl, for, it was their life's desire to have a daughter. This was like a dream come true for them. Harihar wanted to celebrate the birth of his grand-daughter on a grand scale. He talked to Vishu, who readily agreed. A grand feast was planned. Invitations were sent to one and all in the village. Friends and acquaintances from nearby villages were also invited.

Since the day Vansraj had left his home, there was no communication between the father and the son. But Vansraj had learned about the adoption of Vishu by his parents, from the villagers. Vansraj and Devakala were childless, although it was almost twenty years since they were married. Vansraj had now realized his mistake. But it was too late. He was remorseful and wanted to meet his parents to seek forgiveness. But the very thought of having to face Vishu, an adopted child who had looked after Harihar and Chandrawati like an exemplary son, always put him to shame. He found himself helpless.

Devkala learned about the birth of the baby girl to Vishu and Indra from the village women. She passed on this information to Vansraj. Vansraj felt that this was the most opportune time for them to go to Manjihara to meet his parents and participate in the celebrations. "What if my parents rebuke me?" thought Harihar, "Don't they have every right to do so?" He consulted his wife and she endorsed his views.

On reaching Manjihara, Vansraj and Devakala were astonished to find the village decorated with colourful motifs. Roads and paths were spick and span. Harihar's home was tastefully decorated. On coming closer, they saw Harihar and Chandrawati sitting on the dias, draped in silks and adorning jewels. Some people had gathered around them, while some others were in the lawn enjoying the drinks. A couple gorgeously dressed and bedecked with garlands, was moving around to personally welcome the guests. Vansraj and Devakala did not take time to realize that the couple was none other than Vishu and Indra. A humbled but nervous Vansraj, sweating profusely, moved towards his parents on the dias. Harihar spotted his son in the crowd. The old man whispered into Chandrawati's ear. Chandrawati was thrilled. Vansraj came running and fell at their feet. Tears rolled down his eyes. Chandrawati lifted Vansraj and embraced him. So did Harihar. He then called out to Vishu and Indra, who stood motionless witnessing the scene of this reunion. Harihar introduced Vansraj and Devakala to them. Vishu and Indra were pleased to meet them.

At the sunset, the whole area was illuminated with earthen lamps. Harihar and Chandrawati made it a point to personally meet and greet people. Vansraj and Devakala in the meantime went around the farms. They were surprised at the sight. They realised that Vishu had put in a lot of hard work in developing the farms. When they returned, dinner was being served to the guests. Harihar and Chandrawati were busy looking after the guests. Vansraj and Devakala joined them. Not finding Vishu around, Vansraj asked Devakala to look for him and call him out.

Devakala had hardly reached the entrance of the house, when Vansraj and others saw her falling down. They ran towards her and saw her rubbing her right foot and crying in pain. Vansraj looked at her foot and realised that she was bitten by a snake. Vansraj lifted her and laid her on a cot inside the house. Vishu, noticing the ruckus, sprinted to the spot and found Devkala struggling for life. Harihar in the meantime went to fetch Dhaneswar, who was well known for treating those bitten by snakes. Dhaneswar came and examined Devkala. She was already dead. Dhaneswar told Harihar that she had been bitten by a poisonous Naag and was no more. A pall of gloom fell over everybody. The tragic news reached all the corners of the village in no time. Those very people who had come for dinner, were now offering their condolences and paying their homage to the deceased.

Devakala's body was cremated the next day. At the insistence of Harihar and Vishu, Vansraj stayed back in his father's house. But one question that bothered him all the while was, where did this Naag come from? This village had never witnessed any such thing earlier.

Some mischievous person in the village rumoured that it was Vishu, who had taken the form of a Naag and bitten Devkala. To make the story more receptive, he reminded the villagers that Vishu had been found by Harihar at the Naagdevta's temple and that he was not around when Devkala was bitten. Soon, the rumour spread like fire and it did not take much time to reach the ears of Vansraj. Vansraj did not buy the story initially but felt gradually convinced. The turn of events was disastrous for Harihar and his family. They felt helpless. They knew very well that the rumour was false, yet they could not reveal the facts. Harihar was in a dilemma. If he revealed the truth, Vishu would not live, and if he didn't, Vansraj would kill him to take revenge. Either way, it meant Vishu's death.


Convinced that Vishu was responsible for the death of his wife, Vansraj took the case to village elders and wanted a death penalty for Vishu. The village elders counselled between themselves and formed a panel of five wisest amongst them. It was decided that the panel would listen to both the parties and then deliver its judgement. Harihar, though head of the village, was not included in the panel. He felt helpless. Indra too was in a state of shock. She could not believe the story of her husband being a Naag. She tried hard to extract the truth from Chandrawati, but Chandrawati was struck dumb by the shock. She could not utter a word. She looked helplessly at Harihar, who was weeping inconsolably. Harihar incessantly pleaded for mercy from Vansraj, saying that Vishu was innocent. But Vansraj was adamant. He however agreed to grant his father a period of ten days to prove Vishu's innocence.

Vansraj left his father's house but not before reminding his parents that he would return on 11th day to avenge his wife's death.

Harihar was numbed by the shock. He could not think of a way to save Vishu. He recalled the long spell of poverty he had faced and how his life was transformed with the birth of Vishu? Vishu had showered so much of love and affection on them that he felt his ties with Vishu were there since his previous birth. Three days elapsed in the process and he was yet to find a way to save Vishu.

On the fourth day, Harihar rose very early in the morning. He took a bath and set towards the Naagdevta's temple. He offered prayers and with his eyes closed, prayed for safety of Vishu. In a flash, the name of Kaliprasad struck his mind.

Harihar remembered that Vishu at the time of his resurrection had told him and his wife that if they revealed the truth about his resurrection on their own, his soul would escape leaving his mortal frame. But Harihar was sure, if someone other than him and his wife could prove that Vishu was not a Naag, he could be saved. Only Kaliprasad could do it.

Harihar knew very well that Kaliprasad was not in proper senses. But, he felt that on seeing Vishu alive, Kaliprasad may regain his wits. He reached home and discussed his plan with Chandrawati, who felt that it was worth a try. He decided to leave for village Rundhwa without any delay.

Satyadev greeted Harihar very warmly. Without revealing the facts, Harihar told him that he wanted to take Kaliprasad with him so that he could get him treated. It was very late in the evening, so they decided to leave in search of Kaliprasad early next morning.

Harihar was restless for whole of the night. He could not get a wink of sleep. Satyadev woke up early in the morning, only to find that Harihar was ready waiting for him. Both of them left for the temple where Kaliprasad generally spent his nights. On reaching the temple, Harihar called out to Kaliprasad. Kaliprasad was there. He looked up into the sky and muttered "Vishu is there. Why don't you get him?" Harihar put his arm over his shoulder and comforted him, "I will get your Vishu back. Will you accompany me?" Kaliprasad looked at Harihar, hung his head down and lamented, "Nobody can get him back."

Kaliprasad resisted moving out from the premises but Harihar was determined to take him along. After a lot of cajoling and persuasion, he managed to take Kaliprasad with him. Harihar took him to the river, bathed him and changed him into a new set of clothes. Together they had a good meal. But, all the while Kaliprasad asked for Vishu. Harihar assured him that he would take him to Vishu.

On their way back, Harihar stopped at the spot where he had dug out earth for making dolls almost two decades back. Harihar engraved Vishu's name on the soft earth with his fingers and called out to Kaliprasad, who was contantly gazing at the sky. Kaliprasad turned around and slowly moved towards Harihar. He came closer and sat besides him. As soon as his eyes fell on the name engraved on the ground, he leapt to the spot, took some earth from it and rubbed it on his face. Tears began rolling down his eyes. He kissed the ground and wailed, "Yes. Vishu is here. I killed him with my own hands and burnt his body here. Can I get him back?" Harihar did not console him as he wanted Kaliprasad to recall the entire episode very precisely. On regaining his composure, Kaliprasad again pleaded with Harihar to get him Vishu.

Noticing a quick transformation in Kaliprasad's behaviour, Harihar altered his plan. He spent the night in a shelter nearby and returned to Rundhwa village in the morning. Satyadev was surprised to see them back. He thought that Harihar had changed his mind to take Kaliprasad to his home.

Without giving an inkling of his real plans, Harihar related the happenings of the day to Satyadev. Satyadev was shocked to learn that Vishu was not alive and it was Kaliprasad himself who had murdered him. However he agreed with Harihar that this was not the time to harbour any ill-will against Kaliprasad as he was highly repentant. Kaliprasad looked very calm and composed, though very penitent. Harihar and Satyadev decided to tactfully interrogate Kaliprasad and find out if he remembered how and why he killed Vishu? Kaliprasad gradually narrated the entire story. His version matched totally with that of Vishu's story. Harihar then asked him to describe Vishu's features. Harihar was amazed to find that the description exactly matched with those of the present Vishu.

Harihar and Kaliprasad stayed at Satyadev's place for two more days. Harihar asked Kaliprasad many questions pertaining to him and Vishu, only to ensure that he remembered his past correctly. Satyadev on the other hand was ignorant about Harihar's plans but he did not ask any questions. He thought that Harihar was very much concerned with the well being of Kaliprasad and that was why, he was asking him to remember his past.

Harihar requested Satyadev to keep Kaliprasad at his home and bring him to the Manjihara village-rostrum at the time of sunset on a particular day. He assured Satyadev that everything about his plans to treat Kaliprasad will be revealed to him there. On reaching home, Harihar related all the happenings to his wife. She felt relieved and both of them decided to keep the whole thing a closely guarded secret.

Some time before the sunset on the appointed day, Vansraj came to his parents' house. He took Vishu to the village rostrum for the trial by the panel of judges. Vishu was still in the state of shock. Indra was wailing. Harihar and Chandrawati, though anxious, maintained their composure. Villagers in a good number had assembled in the ground near the rostrum. A majority of villagers, though not sure of Vishu's roots, prayed for his life. The judges assembled at the rostrum at the appointed time. It was decided that Vansraj was the victim and justice had to be meted out to him, but not before Vishu was given an opportunity to defend himself. Vishu was called upon and asked to present his case. Vishu vehemently denied the allegation but did not have any proof or witness to support his statement. Vishu felt helpless and looked around for his father. He saw a restless Harihar looking anxiously towards the path leading to river Sarada. Vishu, not knowing anything about Harihar's meeting with Kaliprasad, thought that it was to hide his agony and helplessness that his father had turned his face away from him. The judges asked Vishu to sit in a corner till they deliberated amongst themselves.

Deliberations among the judges were in the last stage, when far away on the village path, two men were seen hurriedly coming towards the rostrum. Harihar's face lit up at the sight of Kaliprasad and Satyadev. As soon as they reached the place, Satyadev was surprised to notice that some elderly persons were deliberating between themselves and something serious was going on. Harihar welcomed both of them and asked them to sit down. Harihar was anxious. He was not sure if Kaliprasad would recognise Vishu and if his much-thought-of scheme would work. He took Kaliprasad's hand in his own hand and before he could say anything, he heard Vishu's wails. He turned his head towards the corner of the rostrum, where Vishu was sitting, and so did Satyadev and Kaliprasad. In a flash, Kaliprasad released his hand from that of Harihar, and jumped on to the rostrum. Like a mad person, he gazed at Vishu's face in utter disbelief. He shouted at the top of his voice "I have found my Vishu, I have found my Vishu" and lifted him up and hugged him and kissed his face and hands like a hysteric. He got him in his lap down from the rostrum and took him upto Satyadev, shouting "Here is my Vishu. He is alive. He is alive." Satyadev was surprised. The boy held by Kaliparasad was really Vishu. Satyadev looked at Harihar with curiosity. Harihar signalled him to be patient for a little time more. Kaliprasad was running from person to person and telling them, "This is my brother Vishu. God has sent him back for me. Don't ever take him away again". Vishu's condition was pathetic. He did not know what was happening and what was further in store for him.

There was pandemonium all around. Judges stopped their deliberations. People were aghast, not knowing what was happening. Satyadev and Vansraj were utterly confused. Harihar and his wife were overwhelmed with joy. They were sure that the worst was over and Vishu would be saved.

Harihar stood up. He requested all to keep silence. He requested judges to suspend their deliberations for a while and ask Kaliprasad to reveal who he was and what did he know about Vishu. Kaliprasad was sobbing and his eyes were full of tears. He was still holding Vishu's head in his lap.

It took Satyadev and Harihar some time to console Kaliprasad and prepare him to speak about him. He revealed all about himself and Vishu and also gave details of how and where he killed Vishu to grab his property. Kaliprasad told the judges that he stabbed Vishu in the stomach first and then inflicted a deep wound on his head. The whole story was like a fairy tale being unfolded. Even Vansraj could not believe his ears.

Under instructions from the judges, Vishu's head and abdomen were examined. To their amazement, scars were found on his head and abdomen in the manner described by Kaliprasad. There was great commotion. Vishu's identity was proved beyond doubt.

Satyadev was not sure what was going on. He spoke to a few villagers sitting near him and came to know all about Harihar's family. He came to know that the meeting was held to decide if Vishu was a Naag and if he had really bitten Vansraj's wife? He also came to know that Harihar had found Vishu at the Naagdevta's temple. Things were getting now clear to Satyadev. He came to the conclusion that Harihar's main aim was to prove Vishu's innocence. "But where from did he actually got Vishu?" Satyadev was yet to know that.

Judges accepted the statements of Kaliprasad and Satyadev and concluded that Vishu was not a Naag and could not have bitten Vansraj's wife. The verdict was accepted by all including Vansraj. But the Judges wanted to know why Harihar did not reveal the truth himself?

Harihar was a relaxed person now. He explained that he could not reveal the facts earlier because of certain compulsions. He explained in detail, how he got Vishu resurrected from his ashes after moulding him into a doll. "And Vishu would have died again, if I had myself revealed his identity to anybody", said Harihar with a choked voice. "Since I was bound to keep his identity a secret, I had no option but to hide his resurrection as well. And that was why I concocted the story of having found him at the Naagdevta's temple".

Everyone was joyous at the turn of events. Vansraj felt ashamed for his behaviour. He went up to his parents asking for forgiveness. Harihar and Chandrawati were happy and decided to celebrate the event by throwing a party. All the villagers were invited to a grand dinner.

During the celebrations, Harihar requested Satyadev to give his daughter Rajlakshmi in marriage to his son Vansraj. Satyadev readily accepted. Kaliprasad was also present. He expressed his desire to spend the rest of his life in service of Harihar and his family, which everybody accepted with open heart.

And all of them lived happily ever after.

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