extend the militancy to the Muslim majority
districts of the Jammu province, and consolidate the Muslims to the west
of Chenab into another militant flank against India, and use it as a lever
for a probable settlement on the division of Jammu and Kashmir along the
unleash a low profile civil war in the
State to exhaust India and force it to surrender and simultaneously solicit
intervention of the third powers to compel India to accept a settlement
more favourable to Pakistan.
By and large, Pakistan and the
secessionist forces in the State succeeded in achieving their targets.
The media mechanics in Pakistan as well as in Azad Kashmir manufactured
volumes of false stories about the bloody battles the Muslim Mujahidin
fought with the Indian troops and the heavy casualities the latter suffered.
Inside the State the secessionist forces, already in a state of preparedness
picked up the cry Pakistan raised and launched a virulent attack on the
security arrangements. The local vernacular press, which depended for financial
support on the Muslim middle class and which had always supported Muslim
separatism, communal precedence of the Muslim majority and a settlement
with Pakistan, joined the tirade against India. A large section of the
vernacular press controlled by the secessionist partisans, mainly the Jamait
Islami, openly committed themselves to the unification of the State with
As the militant violence increased
towards the fall of 1989, the security structures of the State, heavily
infested by the secessionist elements, crumbled rapidly. Partly because
of the inadequacy of the local security forces and partly because of their
ineffectiveness to deal with the terrorist violence, the State Government
was compelled to deploy the Central security forces in the State. Both
by consititutional precept and agreement, to which Jammu and Kashmir is
not an exception, the federal police forces are deployed in the Indian
States on security duty to deal with any law and order situation, which
the local police is unable to control. Besides, the contingents of the
Central Rescrve Police, the State Government deployed Border Security Force
and elements of Indo-Tibetan Border Force on internal security duty. That
was actually, what the secessionists aimed at. They sought to force a confrontation
between the Indian security forces and the militants in order to create
the psychological impression of a state-wide Muslim revolt against India.
The two news journals,owned by the National Conference and the Congress
had no credibility. At this juncture of crisis when these news journals
should have been toned up to rebut the false propaganda poured in from
Pakistan, their columns uere filled by self-condemnator profiles which
sought to explain why the state power had failed to attain the state of
Islamisation promised to the people of the State by the Indian leaders.
The Muslimisation of the various
political and economic processes had begun during the tenure of the First
Interim Government, constituted in 1947, and continued even after. Within
the broad framework of the special status envisaged by Article 370, which
isolated the State from the rest of India, it was far easy for the secessionist
elements to infiltrate into the administrative cadres of the Government.
In fact, the entire administrative organisation of the state had since
been undermined by the secessionists and converted into a major bulwark
of resistance against India.
The Muslim bureaucracy played a major
role in the demolition of the power structure of the State to pave the
way for the functional atrophy of the State Government. Right from the
time of the Interim Government, the Muslim bureaucracy had been built as
a flank of the National Conference, but after the disintegration of the
Conference, it had grown into a powerful instrument of Muslim separatism.
It was actively assisted by the secessionist flanks in the political parties,
which constituted the Government and the nexus between them completed the
destruction of whatever semblence of institutionalisation had survived
the ravages of the movement for plebiscite in the State.
The strategies adopted by the militants
to demolish the security structures of the State achieved their aim with
devastating effect. With the onset of the militant violence in the State,
the security structures in Kashmir, heavily infested by secessionist elements
and led by personnel, deeply indoctrinated by Muslim fundamentalism crumbled
rapidly. The flanks of Kashmir armed police recruited mainly from among
the Muslims of the border districts of both the provinces of Jammu and
Kashmir, struck work and mutineed, allegedly on being treated indifferently
by the Government. This happened at a time when the militant violence had
entered a decisive phase.
The obdurate strike of the State
police forces, aroused fears of an internecine scuffle between them and
the Indian troops and many rumours spread that the State police forces
had fraternised with the militants, distributed arms among them and attacked
the Central Reserve Police personnel and dealt heavy damage upon them.
Rumours also spread that the State police had been ordered to be dlsarmed
but it had refused to lay down arms. Whatever happened behind the scene,
the elements of the local police, stoodbye, every where indeliberate indifference,
without any meaningful direction, to deal with the situation.
The media machines in Pakistan as
well as Azad Kashmir along with the vernacular press in Kashmir, poured
out volumes of abuse and invective against the Indian security forces.
Allegations were made that they were being used to oppress the Muslims,
who were fighting for their legitimate right of self-determination. Stories
were floated about the inconvenience, imposition of curfew caused to the
people, about the shortage of cooking gas and soaps the failure of the
State Government to provide transport for the export of fruit, the breakdown
of the industry etc. But there was little or no reporting of the death
and destruction and the atmosphere of fear and terror, which was rapidly
prevading the life in the State. Kashmiri Hindus killed by the militants,
were condemned as traitors to cause of the Muslim struggle and informers
of the Government of India, who had been justly punished for having betrayed
the Muslim Jehad.
While the secessionist forces consolidated
their hold on Kashmir, they extended their operations to the Muslim majority
districts in the Jammu province. The secessionists aimed to militarise
the Muslims in these districts, in order to provide wider conduits for
infiltration of the trained rnilitants from Pakistan and secondly, to drive
out the Hindus, who formed a more sizeable minority in these districts.
If the Hindus in the Jammu province were isolated in the two districts
of Jammu, Kathua and the fringes of the Udhampur and Doda Districts, lying
east of the Chinab, a basis could be provided for Pakistan to accept the
division of the State along the Chinab? A widespread campaign of subversion
was launched in these districts, to consolidate the secessionist forces
and organise the despatch of Muslim volunteers for arms training, across
the Line of Control. Evidently, with the Hindus thrown out of the Muslim
majority districts, the secessionist operations could easily command the
features behind the Indian defences.
The terrorist violence in the district
of Doda intensified with the induction of the foreign mercenaries into
the State. The administration in the district did not take long to crumble,
leaving the terrorist flanks operating in the district, to establish a
militant regime there.
The Doda district was carved out
of the Hindu majority district of Udhampur by the National Conference Government,
to seggregate the Muslim rnajority regions of the Jammu province, contiguous
to Kashmir. It is situated in the outer hills of the Jammu province and
is bordered in the north by the valley and in the south and south west
by Udhampur and Kathua districts. In the east and south east Doda is contiguous
to Ladakh. The total population of the Doda district is 4,25,262, of which
the Muslim constitute a majority of 55 percent.
The militant operations spread to
Doda from Kashmir and followed the same tactical pattern to fundamentalise
the Muslim society in the district that the militants had adopted in Kashmir.
The public address system, in the mosques, were used to exhort the Muslims
to prepare for the crusade against India. The State government reluctant
to recognise the spread of terrorism to the Jammu province, took no effective
measures to meet the threat the terrorists posed in Doda. As planned, the
terrorist offensive in Doda, unfolded in several phases:
the terrorist launched a widespread
man hunt of the Hindus, killing than wantonly in large numbers;
they warned the Hindus to evacuate from
the district to complete their ethnic extermination;
they smothered the last resistance against
secessionism, among the Muslims who were opposed to Pakistan, by force
after the Hindus were eliminated and
the society fundamentalised they launched a major military offensive against
the Indian security forces;
having established a terrorist regime
in the district, they extended their operations to the entire Jammu province.
The Hindus were subject to torture and
barbarity, which do not have a parallel in the annals of history. The following
local account gives a description of the inhuman practices, brutal torture
and physical assault to which the Hindus in the district were subjected.
Two youths named Shri Rakesh Kumar
(24) and his brother Rattan Lal (22) were taken as hostages for raising
the alarms. After four days their dead bodies were found near a nallah.
They were brutally killed - the breast of Shri Rakesh was opened to take
out his heart. After slaughtering Shri Rattan Lal, his skin was removed
from the face; private parts of both the brothers were cut off.
After a week of this horrible incident
of gruesome killings, the "Mujahids" killed another youth of Kishtwar town.
His name was also Rakesh Kumar. He was also kidnapped alongwith another
youth Gambhir Chand who managed his escape despite being hit by a bullet.
The dead body of Shri Rakesh was found near Bhagana village 40 kms.
from Kishtwar town. His eyes were removed and different parts cut before
On 25/26 March 1994, two Hindu youths
from village Puneja (Bhaderwah) were kidnapped and tortured to death.
On 30. 4. 1994 an Ex-Serviceman,
Shri Om Raj R/O Sinerra (Bhaderwah) was gunned down in his house and his
On 2.5.1994 Rangil Singh, Gulab Singh
and a gujjar boy Abdul Gani were kidnapped and mercilessly tortured by
Afghans at village Sumbar. Their parents were forced to eat the flush of
their children and some of the villagers were forced to take beaf.
On 27.5.1994 three Harijan boys were
killed mercilessly in Adall village of Kishtwar. They are Shri Kishore
Lal, Jeevan Lal, and Ravinder.
Two militants were killed by villagers
at Kote village. Later the whole village was burnt and the inhabitants
forced for migration to Himachal Pradesh. Thousand of terrorists, including
foreign mercenaries, were camping at the higher reaches of Doda district.
Militants have looted all the police
posts at Chatru, Marwa, Warban, Dacan, Paddar and Thathri and hence snatched
118 rifles (303), 14 pistols, 16 uireless sets and a large quantity of
ammunition from Jammu and Kashmir police without firing a single shot -
later on State government withdrew these police posts, which have been
recently restored after protests.
14 Jawans of B.S.F. were trapped
and killed in Desa area because of the misguidance of local guide who had
informed the militants before and the guide was the S.H.O. of the area.
Militants laid ambush and killed all of them.
A steady exodus of the Hindus from
the Doda district and several Muslim majority regions of the Jammu province
is now in progress. The objective is to push out the Hindus from the regions
east of the Chenab, to prepare ground for the separation of the Kashmir
valley and the larger parts of the Jammu province from India, more or less
on the basis of a modified form of the plan, when Sir Dixon, the united
Nations representative, proposed as a basis for settlement of the Kashmir
This was what the secessionist forces
were able to accomplish in Kashmir. The Hindus in Kashmir, hundreds of
them killed and tortured to death and thrown out of their homes by terror
tactics, were eliminated as a factor in the process of resistance against
the secessionist movement in the State. If the Hindus from the Muslim majority
districts of the Jammu province were also uprooted from their homes, they
too would cease to be a factor in the resistance against secessionism?