long ago there lived a poor Brahman in Kashmir named Soda Ram. Fortune
had yoked him to a wife who was ambitious and discontented. She always
grumbled for lack of the many requirements of material prosperity and called
her husband a foolish drone. She had a terrible tongue which was used to
a devastating effect against her husband and became sharper and progressively
vitriolic in that exercise. Soda Ram was sick of her and would very much
have liked to get rid of her but found no way out. One day when his wife
asked him to go to a not distant place to receive alms from a king, he
jumped at the proposal, as that would give him a welcome respite for a
He left his
home carrying a little food in a small wallet. Travelling some distance
in the hot sun he felt tired. Luckily he came to a shady grove of trees
near a spring. He put down his small bundle, took his rough meal and lay
down for a little rest. Before Soda Ram resumed his journey he saw a serpent
come out of the spring and enter the little wallet he carried. An idea
flashed across his mind he would carry the serpent home to sting his wife
and thus get rid of her. With trembling hands he closed the mouth of the
wallet with a string and returned home with a light heart.
"I have got
a precious gift for you," Soda Ram shouted to his wife when he reached
home. At first she would not believe it as her husband was the last man
to do things that pleased her heart. However, having persuaded her that
his bag held the gift, he gave it to her, stepped out of the room and closed
the door from outside. When the Brahman lady opened the bag the serpent
popped its head out. She shrieked and ran to the door. But it did not open
and Soda Ram said, "Let it sting you for aught I care!" The serpent apparently
spared the woman and a miracle room and the serpent changed into a little
male baby. Even Soda Ram was wonderstruck against his better knowledge.
It was a piece of good fortune beyond the wildest dreams of his wife.
In course of
time the baby grew into a boy, the beloved of his foster parents to whom
he brought great prosperity. He came to be known as Nagrai, the king of
serpents. One day he asked his father to take him to a spring of pure water
where he wanted to take a bath. His father told him that there was only
one such spring but that belonged to the princess and was surrounded by
lofty walls. It was so heavily guarded, he told him, that not even a bird
was permitted to take flight over it. But Nagrai's curiosity was fanned
and he persuaded his father to take him to the outer wall. Reaching there
the boy turned into a serpent, crept in through a crevice into the wall,
satisfied his craving for a bath in the limpid spring and returned quietly
The next day
the illustrious Himal, the daughter of the king, observed that some one
had taken a bath in the spring as she had heard the splashing of water.
But neither the maids nor the guards had seen any one. Nagrai repeated
his visit the next day undetected; but on the day after, Himal caught a
glimpse of the intruder and was enthralled by his looks. She at once set
a maid servant after him and came to know that he was the son of the Brahman
Soda Ram. She was delighted to know that the young man who had won her
heart belonged to the same city as she herself and made up her mind to
marry no one except the Brahman boy. Discarding her modesty and the traditional
good manners she approached her father in trepidation and broached the
subject to him. Her father did not mind her marrying the young man of her
own choice but it was ridiculous and humiliating for him to have a poor
Brahman for his son-in-law. "How can I show my face to the fellow princes
of my caste, or to the courtiers and wazirs?" he reprimanded her. But she
was dead set on it. She refused to touch her food or make her toilet till
the king granted her her boon. In a few days, realizing the futility of
his resistance her father sent for Soda Ram. The latter was already appalled
when he stepped into the palace but was utterly perplexed when the king
mentioned the subject of the alliance. "I am a poor Brahman, Sire," he
said, "and how can I be worthy of such a peerless daughter-in-law." But
even he found himself helpless as Nagrai compelled him to give his consent
to the alliance which he did reluctantly.
As the wedding
day approached Soda Ram was enveloped in gloom. "What a sorry figure shall
we cut," he told everyone "when we lead the wedding party into the palace!"
But Nagrai told him not to have any anxiety on this score. On the wedding
day he gave him a piece of birchbark inscribed with a message and asked
him to drop it in a spring. When Soda Ram returned home he felt dazed as
he saw a gorgeous palace where he expected his poor hut. He felt convinced
that he had lost his way. He also heard the beating of drums and the skirting
of pipes inside, and saw caparisoned horses and elephants, guards with
glittering uniforms and retainers. From inside came Nagrai befittingly
dressed as a princely bridegroom and assured him that all was ready. The
whole city was agog with music, feasting and revelry in honour of the wedding
of Himal and Nagrai. A new palace was built for them on the river bank
where they lived happily.
however, not destined to enjoy their happiness for long. The serpent wives
of Nagrai felt forlorn in his absence in the nether world and made efforts
to trace him out. One of them assumed the human form and made inquiries
after her husband and learnt of his marriage with Himal. To remind him
of his attachment to his serpent-wives she had carried with her a few rare
golden vessels of his. Approaching the mansion of Himal she began to hawk
her wares. Himal was attracted by her curios and purchased them at a throw-away
price. When Nagrai returned she displayed to him the curios. He at once
understood the mischief of his serpent-wives, broke the vessels to splinters
and warned Himal not to succumb to the tempting talk of such women again.
She was puzzled but kept quiet.
wife tried a different trick when the first failed. Disguising herself
as a cobbler-woman she approached Himal and asked her if she knew of her
husband Nagrai the cobbler. "Nagrai is my husband," replied Himal, "but
he is a Brahman, son of Soda Ram." "I don't know about that," said the
other, "what I know is that Nagrai is my husband and is a cobbler by caste."
She saw from Himal's face that her words were beginning to have effect.
She added, "You may ask him his caste. But to make sure you may set him
the trial. Ask him to plunge into a spring of milk. His body will sink
if he be a Brahman. A cobbler's body will float on the surface."
came home Himal asked him to state his caste. He understood that she had
been befouled by the serpent-wives and told her so but she insisted that
he should undergo the trial to convince her of his caste. All his arguments
failed to convince her that it was a trap laid down by her enemies. Ultimately
he was induced to face the trial to allay her misgivings. He dipped his
feet in a spring full of milk and was pulled down by his serpent-wives.
He resisted their pull in the hope that Himal might be satisfied but to
no avail. When his knees were immersed he said, "Himal, are you satisfied?"
She was not. When his thighs were also immersed he repeated the question
but she said nothing. He appealed to Himal again and again when the surface
of milk reached his navel, his chest and his chin but her misgivings about
his caste were not cleared yet. She realized the gravity of the situation
when he was immersed to his forehead. She sprang and tried to pull him
out by the tuft of hair on his head. But it was too late. Nagrai disappeared
under the milk and Himal was left only with a tuft of hair in her hand.
Himal was left
forlorn. Her grief was beyond words and nothing could console her. She
was in dismay and sorrow. The worst of it was that her own folly led to
her undoing. To expiate her stupidity she decided to give all her wealth
in charity. Everyday she relieved the distress of scores of men and women
and gave away everything she had in silver, gold and jewels till only a
golden mortar and pestle was left with her. Once an old man and his daughter
came to her for alms. She served them food and he narrated to her a tale
that filled her with excitement. He told her that one night he and his
daughter lay under a tree near a spring. At midnight they heard a great
noise as of an army on the march. Then came a number of servants out of
the spring who cleaned the area and cooked a large feast which was served
to many guests including a prince. They all disappeared within the spring
except their chief. He left a little food under the tree saying "This is
in the name of unlucky Himal" and disappeared within the spring.
the old man to take her to the spring and rewarded him with the remnants
of her wealth, the golden mortar and pestle. At night with her own eyes
she saw the series of events narrated by the old man. Her nerves were tense
and her heart was racing. When Nagrai came out of the spring she prostrated
herself at his feet. Nagrai was overcome with emotion but he was afraid
that his serpent wives would kill Himal if he took her to his abode. He
consoled her and advised her to wait for a month or so till he could make
some arrangement for her stay. Himal would brook no further separation
from him and coiled herself round his legs. Nagrai was in a pretty fix
now. At last he turned her into a pebble, hid her in his turban and went
back to his home in the serpent world. His wives began to look askance
upon him and accused him of the smell of human flesh in his company. He
could conceal the secret no longer and reconverted her into the human form
after they had solemnly promised that they would not molest her. They were
highly impressed with her beauty and tenderness and could not help being
jealous. As they had solemnly promised Nagrai not to do her any harm they
had their revenge by imposing all the culinary drudgery upon her. This
princess brought up in a palace with maids and servants to carry out her
every whim gladly undertook to look after the kitchen of the serpents.
But she had no experience of these affairs and revealed herself to be a
clumsy and uncouth cook. One day, while pouring boiled milk into basins
to cool it for the serpent children, her ladle accidentally struck one
of the vessels. The serpent children mistook it for the usual breakfast
gong. They rushed to the kitchen and gulped the hot milk. As a result they
died of burns. The serpent wives were overcome with grief. They stung Himal
and she died immediately.
overwhelmed with grief but he was helpless. He washed the body of Himal
and under presence of cremating it carried it through the spring. He was
so moved by his affection for Himal that he could not stand the idea of
consigning it to the flames. Instead, he embalmed it and stretched it on
a bed which he placed in a tree nearby. Now and then he would come out
of the spring and remorsefully look on the beauty of the dead form Not
long after, a holy man happened to come to the spring and saw the dead
body. He was so impressed by the beauty of Himal and the devotion of Nagrai
that he gave the body the gift of life. He then carried Himal to his home
where the holy man's son was fascinated with her beauty and not knowing
her story set his heart on marrying her.
A couple of
days later Nagrai came once again out of the spring to draw consolation
from a sight of Himal's body. He was grieved to find the body missing and
sought to solve the mystery before retiring. He traced her ultimately to
the holy man's hut where she was lying asleep and was delighted to find
her living once again. He did not want to disturb her while asleep and,
therefore, coiled himself near the bed of Himal till she would wake up.
In the meantime, the holy man's son entered the cottage and was alarmed
to see the snake. He at once killed the snake. Himal woke up in this commotion,
realized the significance of the snake and bewailed its unnatural death.
"Once again has he suffered for my sake" she mourned. She had the dead
snake cremated and ascending the funeral pyre committed herself to the
flames as sati. Everyone was moved by their devotion and the sacrifice
they made for each other. The holy man was especially remorseful because
it was in his hut where Nagrai out of love for Himal had lost his life
and this had led to the self-immolation of Himal also. He felt deeply concerned.
One day, while he was brooding over this question he heard two birds talking
about the love, devotion and sacrifice of Himal and Nagrai. The female
bird said to her consort, "Can they ever regain their human form?" "Verily
so" replied the latter, "if their ashes are thrown into the spring." The
holy man realized that the two birds were none else than Shiva and Parvati.
He at once threw the ashes into the spring. Himal and Nagrai came to life
in their human form once again and lived without further mishap ever after.