Chapter 3: Early Shahmirs
Sultan Shamsu'd-Din was gifted with intelligence and
sagacity and established cordial relations with all the leading personalities
and chiefs of the domain of Kashmir. He also entered into matrimonial relations
with them by giving his daughters in marriage to their sons and by accepting
their daughters in marriage to his sons. Thus he established harmonious
relations with the nobles and the leading personalities [of Kashmir]. Sometime
later, Rinchu (Rinchan), in accordance with the Qura'nic saying that "all
that lives must taste of death," left the "world of toil for the abode
of eternal peace, " having reigned for two years and six months. He died in
A.H. 727 (A.D. 1326).
His widow Koteh Ren [Rani], with the consent of the
chiefs of the day, recalled Uden (Udyana) Dev, the brother of Suh Dev, who
had fled to the lands of Swadgir during the disturbances caused by Zulji (Zulchu).
He was installed on the throne and she married him. This Uden (Udyana) Dev was
weak and incompetent and given to monastic life. His wife Koteh Ren (Rani) in
effect held the reins of the government of Kashmir. She bore him a son whom she
entrusted to the care of one of the chiefs of the land, named Tejeh Bhat
At that time, a group of Turks soldiers entered into
Kashmir from Hirpur. Coward and pusillanimous as he was, Uden (Udyana) Dev fled
towards Tibet, but his wife Koteh Ren (Rani) exhibited singular courage by
infusing a heroic spirit in her brother Ravan Raina, Sultan Shamsu'dDin, and
Tejeh Bhat Kakehpuri, and managing to rally round her all the kotwals of Kashmir
and the people [commandants] of the forts. Weapons for fighting [the enemy] were
procured and the Turkish intruders were subjected to harassment. At last truce
was made and they [the Turks] were made to quit the land. Negotiations of vital
importance in connection with this event were largely conducted by Shah Mir.
Thus his prestige and position were further enhanced and most of the areas of
the kingdom came under his control. Koteh Ren (Rani) recalled her imbecile
husband from Tibet and re-installed him on the throne. In he year A.H. 742 (A.D.
1341), "the cup of his life tumbled upside down as a result of the rotation
of spheres." He ruled for fifteen years, two months and two days.
Consequent upon his death, his wife Koteh Ren (Rani) held the reins of kingdom
for five months. Her headquarters were at Andarkol.
Shah Mlr found that the realm of Kashmir lacked a
government by men of ability. He was reminded of the words of his ancestor and
began to nurse the ambition of capturing power and kingship. He took leave of
Koteh Ren (Rani), and settled in the city of Kashmir. Through his genial
disposition, he succeeded in winning the favour of the chiefs and elders of the
state. He got Tejeh Bhat Kakehpuri murdered because he refused to cooperate with
him. He assembled the chiefs and besieged Koteh Ren (Rani) at Andarkol.
After overpowering her, he bound her willynilly in a marriage contract with
himself.  Two hundred and eleven years elapsed between the beginning of the
reign of Zayeh Dev and the time under reference. From Zayeh Dev to Uden (Udyana)
Dev, thirteen rulers ruled over Kashmir, generation after generation. Koteh Ren
(Rani) was the fourteenth in order of succession and Rinchan fifteenth in the
course of two hundred and eleven years.
In A.H. 742 (A.D. 1341), Shah Mir ascended the throne
of Kashmir and assumed the title Shamsu'd-Din by which he is known even
today. He ruled for a period of three years and five months and died in the
year A.H. 746 (A.D. 1345). He was survived by two sons, Sultan Jamshid and
Shamsu'd-Din was succeeded by his elder son Sultan
Jamshid who ruled for a year and two months, after which he fell out with his
brother. In an armed confrontation which ensued in the village of Vantipore,
Sultan Jamshid suffered a defeat, following which Sultan 'Alau'd-Din
ascended the throne in A.H. 748 (A.D. 1347).
He ['Alau'd-Din] had two sons, Shihabu'd-Din and
Qutbu'd-Din. During the reign of 'Alau'd-Din it so happened that his eldest son,
Shihabu'd-Din, in the course of a hunting expedition, strayed into a jungle in
the mountains along with his three companions Chandar, Udsheh Rawal and Ikhtuji.
 Their other followers were left far behind. Suddenly there appeared a woman
from the woods who had signs of austerity and righteousness stamped on her
face. She offered a cup of sharbet (drink) to Shihabu'dDin and exhorted him to
drink it. He took the cup from her hand unhesitatingly and drank it, leaving
only the dregs for his comrades. Chandar drank half a draught out of it. So did
Udsheh, leaving nothing for Ikhtaji. Then the woman told them that she would
speak to them about the future events of their lives: "The throne and the
kingdom shall pass into the hands of this Shihabu'd-Din and he shall conquer
many more lands and territories which none of the rulers of Kashmir have ever
commanded. "She told Chandar and Udsheh Rawal that they would become
responsible for discharging vitally important duties in the shaping of [the
future] events [of the kingdom]. She further told them that as a proof of what
she foretold they would find that this Ikhtaji, who did not have the good luck
to drink even a drop out of the cup, would go to the other world before reaching
his present destination.
They returned from the hunt and, before actually
reaching their destination, the messenger of death overtook Ikhtaji: from the
world of matter he moved on to that of spirit. This confirmed the authenticity
of the predictions made by that woman and they expected that the other items of
her predictions would also come true. 'Alau'd-Din's rule lasted twelve years and
eight months. He founded the locality of Alau'd-Din Pora where he himself
lived. In A.H. 761 (A.D. 1359), he breathed his last; he lies buried
under a tomb at 'Alau'd-Din Pora.
After the death of 'Alau-Din, his eldest son
Shihabu'dDin succeeded him to the throne. Two of his nobles, Chandsar [sic]
Dev, a descendant of the line of Chandas, and Ujani Raina were the
commanders of his troops. Udsheh Rawal was his adviser and also held the charge
of the collector of taxes, duties and revenues of Kashmir. It was he who imposed
iki [sic] on boatmen which meant that for one week in a month they were required
to render service to the king without receiving wages or remuneration. Many more
practices [of extortion, besides the one mentioned] were initiated by him and of
these some continue to this day. It was Sultan Muhammad 'Ali Shah, God Almighty
pardon his sins, who discarded the practice of iki [imposed] on the boatmen.
Sultan Shihabu'd-Din ruled for nineteen years during
which he engaged himself mostly in subjugating and annexing adjoining
territories to his kingdom. This kept him away from Kashmir and he visited it
sparingly. The recounters of the events of kings and the choniclers of mighty
monarchs have recorded in their annals that Kashmir never saw a king of his
valour and a warrior of his intrepidity. Details concerning this have been
adequately recorded in the history of written in Kashmiri (Sanskrit). He
[the historian] says that if the stories and anecdotes of his remarkable bravery
are fully described, people are likely to ascribe them to his poetical
exaggeration and as such would be taken as false. They would doubt their
veracity. That is why only brief details are given here:
When Kashmir fell into a state of chaos and confusion
because of Zulchu's ravages, it took her considerable time to repair the loss
and gradually regain its prosperity. In each pargana villagers joined hands and
strengthened their forts. They chose one among them as their leader and claimed
to be independent and autocratic. They were not prepared to submit themselves to
one another' s authority. Although some of them did recognize the governor of
the city as their overlord and sent presents and gifts to him, yet, strictly
speaking, they did not observe the norms of loyalty and submission.
The first and foremost step which Shihabu'd-Din took
after ascending the throne of his father was to coordinate civil administration
of the parganas in Kashmir. Within a short time, he welded the whole of Kashmir
into a single unit. Some of the defiant chiefs and lards of parganas were put to
the sword and the others were brought under subjugation .
Having completed the aforesaid measures in Kashmir, he
paid attention to the conquest of the neighbouring lands. At the head of a small
contingent of troops he came out from Baramulla. His first conquests were
those of the lands of Pakli (Pakhli) and Swadgir, followed by the domain of
Kakars (Ghakhars). Then he set out for the conquest of Multan. Later he headed
towards Kabul and Laghman to restore order in those places. After the
conquest and occupation of these lands, he marched towards Badakhshan, and
conquered it. From there, he proceeded towards the mountains of Buhlr, Gilgit,
and Dardu. The next expedition was to Tibet, which he had firmly resolved to
conquer. In those days, Tibet was under the suzerainty of the ruler of Kashghar.
On hearing of Sultan's expedition he gathered together a large number of
soldiers and headed towards Tibet where, eventually, the two hostile forces
confronted each other. In the ensuing battle each side showed feats of heroism
and bravery. Although the troops of the ruler of Kashghar outnumbered the
Kashmiris, yet, as the saying goes "when God wills the smaller number shall
prevail over the larger number, " Shihabu' d-Din emerged victorious . The
Kashgharian army was routed and their soldiers dispersed helter-skelter. The
victorious Shihabu'd-Din then proceeded via Tibet to conquer Nagarkot and
restore order in those areas. He conquered those regions and from there he
entrusted the campaign of Kothwar (Kishtwar) to Malik Chandar. He took
possession of the whole of the mountain range right upto Jammu. From each town
and land that fell into the hands of Sultan Shihabu'd-Din, he carried along with
him their gallant and famous warriors, war-veterans and war-horses.
After the conquest of Nagarkot, Shihabu'd-Din resolved
to conquer the lands of Hindustan. For this purpose, he assessed the numerical
strength of his army, cavalry and foot-soldiers. The number came to fifty
thousand horsemen and five lakh soldiers.  With this force, he proceeded
towards Delhi to conquer the lands of Hind. The king of Delhi at that time was
Feroz Shah. Shihabu'd-Din reached the village of Sateh Ledar. Feroz Shah
also arrived at the same place at the head of a large army. For some months the
two armies confronted each other and no one could overpower the other. At last
negotiations were started and hostilities ceased. The lands lying beyond
Sirhind right upto Kashmir came under the control of Sultan Shihabu'd-Din. Thus
by the grace of the Creator of the World, he returned to Kashmir by Hirpur route
carrying his banner of victory and beating the trumpet of his triumph.
The town of Shihabu'd-Din Pora  founded during the
reign of Sultan Shamsu'd-Din was re-built and considerably developed after the
Sultan conquered the Indian lands. It was developed into a pleasure spot where
people came for relaxation and enjoyment. He ordered the construction of a Jamia'
mosque in that town.
In order to ensure the safety of his country and the
security of its borders, the Sultan sent there some of his nobles and chiefs. He
conferred upon Ujani Raina-a descendant of the line of Chandas the village of
Chadura as his place of residence. He was sent to Kabul and Laghman to
consolidate gains [of conquest] and to enforce security [of those areas]. He
first brought Kabul under control and then attended to the defence of Laghman.
But there he breathed his last and his dead body was carried all the way back to
Chadura where it was buried.
Sultan Shihabu'd-Din addressed himself to such works as
would help him get peace in the world hereafter. He arranged a tomb and a burial
place for himself to be used after his death. Towards the fag end of his life,
he was infused with a zeal for delmolishing idol-houses and destroying the
temples and idols of the infidels. He destroyed the massive temple at Beejeh
Belareh  (Bijbehara). He had designs to destroy all the temples and put an
end to the entire community of the infidels. But death overtook him in the
year A.H. 780 (A.D 1378). As he lay dying, the glory of kingship, the
innumerable troops and a long retinue of liveried servants proved of no avail
[to him]. The monarch of his soul that reigned over the realm of his body left
his mortal abode and arrived in the everlasting world.
He was succeeded by his brother, Sultan Qutbu'd-Din,
who founded Qutbu'd-Din Pora and made it his residential headquarters. Here he
built himself a lofty palace the like of which had not been built by his
predecessors, except the Palace at Andarkol. The east of the city was selected
for a graveyard where he built a tomb [for himself]. A large number of
God-fearing men, saints and spiritualists lie buried in that graveyard.
Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani
Sultan Qutbu'd-Din ruled for sixteen years. During his
time and in the year A.H. 783 (A.D. 1381), though some say in A.H. 773 (A.D.
1371), His Holiness arrived in Kashmir. God knows better! The protector of
the realm of Spirituality, the holder of the position of guidance, the denizen
of the hermitage where there is none but God, inmate of the cloister where one
merges with the Supreme, monarch on the throne of immortality, the peer of 'Ali,
Amir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, God sanctify his soul, consecrated the land of Kashmir
by planting on its soil his most august footsteps. [This event] enhanced the
prestige of the inhabitants of this land to supreme heights. Sultan Qutbu'd-Din
paid him the highest regard by receiving him [ in person ] with sincerity and
conviction. Although Sultan Qutbu'd-Din had been admitted to the Islamic faith,
in those days none of the 'Ulema and men of learning in Kashmir preached
religion without hypocrisy. The Qadis and the theologians of those days paid
scant attention to things permitted or prohibited [in Islamic religion] and,
because the teachings of Islamic faith had not been enforced fully, Sultan
Qutbu'd-Din had married two women who were uterine sisters. When Amir Sayyid
'Ali Hamadani came to know of it, he forbade him to do so. Sultan Qutbu'd-Din
divorced one of his two wives of his free will; with the other he entered
into a new marriage contract and made her wear his dress. Sultan Sikandar,
the Iconoclast, was born to her after this marriage.
In those days the majority of people was that of
infidels and polytheists. The inhabitants of this land wore the common and
popular dress of the infidels. Sultan Qutbu'd-Din also dressed himself after
their fashion. But at the behest of the Sayyid, he abandoned that costume and
adopted the Muslim dress.
The Sayyid presented to the Sultan a cap from his
personal wardrobe by way of a token; he considered it a mark of exaltation, and
wore it under his crown. All the succeeding rulers of his line observed the
practice of wearing it under the crown because they considered it a symbol of
exaltation in this world and the other. This practice continued down to the
times of Sultan Fath Shah; after his death, it was put in his shroud. A dervish
who attended upon the people of that order learnt that the cap of Amir Sayyid
'Ali Hamadani had been put in the shroud [of the dead Sultan]. He declared it as
a sinister omen, an indication that kingship and authority would forsake that
house for good. And so it did happen. Upto that day the rulers of this house
had enjoyed independence and were so powerful that they could dismiss anybody
they wished from his official position or elevate anyone they liked to a
position of command and prestige. But after the death of Fath Shah, the rulers
of the house lost their power and authority. Thereafter each day witnessed a
gradual decline in their authority till they were finally replaced by the
dynasty of the Chaks, whose account will follow [at its proper place].
Again it needs to be recorded that for some of the time
which the holy Amir spent in Kashmir he lived in a sarai at 'Alau'd-Din Pora. At
the site where his khanqah was built, there existed a small temple which was
demolished and converted into an estrade on which he offered namaz (prayer) five
times a day and recited portions of the Qur'an morning and evening. Sultan
Qutbu'd-Din occasionally attended these congregational prayers.
In those days there lived a sirdar called Ladi
Magray who belonged to the clan of Magrays. He came to the holy Amir with
all sincerety and humility, laying his head in humble submission at his
threshold. The saint, bestowing upon him his love and affection, accredited him
as his standard-bearer. On account of this distinction, the clan of Magrays
stole a march over the rest of the clans of sirdars and chiefs of Kashmir.
Sultan Qutbu'd-Din failed to propagate Islam in accordance with the wishes' and
aspirations of Amir Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani and as such the latter found himself
reluctant to stay on in this land. Consequently, after a short while, he left
via Baramulla under the pretext of proceeding on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Bearing
his standard, Ladi Magray accompanied him upto the banks (waters) of Panbeh
[sic] Drang. The governors and rulers of those lands showed great respect to the
Sayyid and each one of them expressed his sincere loyalty to him. They entreated
him to make a halt at their respective places. In A.H. 786 (A.D. 1384), he died
at Paneri [sic] in the vilayat of Swadgir on the sizth of Dhu'l-Hijja. In this
connection Shaykh Muhammad Berai [sic] has found this chronogram:
Chu shud az gahi Ahmad khatime din
ze hijrat haft-sado shast-o thamanin
biraft az 'alam-i fani be baqi
Amir-e har do 'alam zal-i Yasin.
The year of his death has been recorded in another
Murshid-i salikan , Shah-e Hamdan
kez damash bagh-i ma'rifat bishguft
mazhar-i noor-i haqq kih ruyash bud
'aqabat az jahaniyan benihuft
'aql tarikh-i sal-i rahlat-i u
Sayyid-i ma 'Ali-e thani guft.
After his death, his sacred remains were carried by his
followers and the faithful to Khatlan where they made a burial place for these.
All the details concerning his death and the carrying of the catafalque have
been recorded by Nuru'd-Din Ja' far Badakhshi in Khula Satu'l-Manaqib.
Sultan Qutbu'd-Din died  in A.H. 796 (A.D. 1393)
and was succeeded by his dear and fortunate son; I mean that the devout, just,
the protector of religion, the wielder of good fortune, the recepient of special
favour of Master Bestower (God), Sultan Sikandar, the idol-breaker, God
enlighten him in the grave, became the king of the realm of Kashmir. 
Mir Sayyid Muhammad
During the period of this glorious king's reign, the
holy Amir Sayyid Muhammad, the son of Amir Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani, graced this
land with his footsteps. to him [Sayyid Muhammad] goes the credit of wiping
out the vestiges of infidelity and heresy from the mirror of the conscience of
the dwellers of these lands. Through sermonising and exhortations, he succeeded
in enlightening the hearts of the people with the world-embellishing faith of
the choicest among men-the faith of Islam. Despite the inexperience of a youth,
he was gifted with remarkable piety and knowledge of sciences, esoteric as well
as exoteric. Sharh-e Shameh [sic] is his work on logic. He also wrote a
tract on mysticism for Sultan Sikandar, in which he has clearly recorded that he
was twenty-two years old at the time of writing that book.
Immediately after his arrival, Sultan Sikandar, peace
be on him, submitted to his religious supremacy and proved his loyalty to
him by translating his words into deeds. He eradicated aberrant practices and
infidelity. He also put an end to the various forbidden and unlawful
practices throughout his kingdom. Thus during the entire period of his rule,
lasting nearly twenty-six years, all traces of wines and intoxicants and
instruments of vice and corruption, like the cord of canticle, lyre, or tamborin
were wiped off. The clamour of the drum and the trumpet, and the shrill notes of
the fife and the clarion no lorger reached people's ears, except in battles and
assaults. After the end of the rule of that king, the supporters and
upholders of disbelief and darkness, who helped the growth of infidelity and
polytheism, revived their practices. Day after day the customs of religious
innovators and polytheists gained currency more than what they had in previous
During the days of the late Sultan Sikandar, Malik Suh
Bhatt the chief and general of the king, embraced Islam on the initiation of
Amir Sayyid Muhammad. He discarded the faith of the infidels and aberrant
practices and accepted Islam with purity of heart and sincerity of conscience.
Amir Sayyid Muhammad conferred upon him the title of Malik Saifu'd-Din. Thus
Sultan Sikandar and Malik Saifu'd-Din, God bless them both, joined hands to gear
their full effort towards the eradication of infidelity and other aberrant
practices. They raised the banner of Islam and the standard of the faith of
the chosen among people to the highest pinnacle of glory and exaltation. Through
the blessings and support of Islam and by the propagation of the commands of the
sharia', they were rewarded with victories wherever they led their armies,
confirming the saying that "God helps those who help Muhammad's
During his (Sultan Sikandar's) days, Khaqan-i Sahib
Qiran, Mirza Timur Gorkan conquered India. He showed love and affection to the
above-mentioned Sultan and sent him a pair of elephants as a gift.
It was also during his time that the Sayyids of Baihaq
arrived in Kashmir. They had left their native place Sabzewar owing to the
invasion of Mirza Timur Korkan and had got scattered over India. But unable to
find a safe and tranquil abode in Kashmir, they returned to the plains of India,
where they ultimately settled in the town of Jarichah near Delhi. Details of
this event will be recorded at the relevant place. They came to Kashmir again
along with their entourage during the reign of Sultan Zainu'l-'Abidin, and
finally settled here.
What follows now is the story of this clan. Mr Sayyid
Mahmud Baihaqi, son of Sayyid Muhammad Baihaqi and a grandson of Sayyid Jalal,
did not adequately reflect on finding solutions to the problems arising out of
the emergence of Mirza Timur. Resigning himself to the will of God and relying
on his [quality of] steadfastness, he fought the overwhelming army of Timur.
[ verses ]
His troops suffered defeat and he fled towards India.
On his way he visited the shrine of Ima Reza- salutes and respect to him- to
offer his respects. In order to be blessed with knowledge, he retired to a
secluded corner in the shrine, and after five days, with awakened mind and
vision, saw the Imam in his dream. He prostrated before him as a mark of respect
and made a humble submission to him that in his childhood, he had not read
anything from books of learning nor had he tried to acquire knowledge. The Imam
rubbed his saliva on his tongue which gave Sayyid Mahmud such eloquence that he
became one among the learned. The saliva of Imam Reza [also] gave him mystic
powers. When he woke up from his dream, he found himself a wise and
discriminating person. He found that he had been gifted with wisdom and powers
of discrimination to a degree that was neither possible nor imaginable.
After that he left the holy town of Meshhad and arrived
in the prestigious city of Delhi during the reign of Sultan Ghiathu'd-Din. On
being informed of his arrival, the Sultan showed him due respect by receiving
him in person. He sat in his company for a while during which he showed all
possible respect to him. The learned and scholerly men of the city would discuss
their problems with him and he, with the help of his inspired knowledge, would
solve their difficulties.
[ verses ]
After a few days, Sultan Ghiathu'd-Din ordered a grand
celebration. Peals of music sounded forth from the harp and the dulcimer; the
lute and the organ; the tamborin and bellhanging staff; the violin and the
cornet. The harp, the rebeck, and the sikh-i-khatai were played upon; and a
quaint melody in Iraqi was raised. The sunlike drum (daf) and the moonlike
violin (kemancheh) also came into play. The learned and the celebrated and the
elite and the noble from all parts [of the country] living in Delhi gathered
together. Upto that day, the sun-the headless and footless globetrotter-had
never cast its rays on such a galaxy of brilliant people. The sky, which,
through a hundred thousand eyes of its stars and comets, watches closely men and
their affairs on this earth had never caught sight of such an assembly.
[ verses ]
Mir Sayyid Mahmud composed two panegyrics in praise of
Sultan Ghiathu'd-Din with sham' and chiragh as qafiyas. Historians have feared
the length of the panegyrics and have recorded only the following verses:
[ verses ]
That night Sultan Ghiathu'd-Din heard many strange and
sensational things from Mir Sayyid Mahmud. As the sun donned his golden crown
and raised its head in the East, Mir Sayyid Mahmud composed this extempore
panegyric in praise of the Sultan:
[ verses ]
Sultan Ghiathu'd-Din greatly trusted the words of Mir
Sayyid Mahmud. He permitted him to retire to his resting place so that the
crowds left the royal palace.
The aforesaid Sultan had a daughter of unparalleled
beauty. With regard to the matter of her marriage, he, first of all, held
consultations with his courtiers and privy counsellors. They unanimously opined
that none but the noble Mir Sayyid Mahmud was qualified for this high favour;
any other suggestion would amount to indulging in an exercise in futility. The
suggestion of the courtiers was approved by the Sultan and they were entrusted
with the mission of negotiating this matrimonial alliance. :But when they made
this suggestion to Mir Sayyid-of venerable lineage-, he declined saying that in
the holy shrine of Imam Reza, he had received a message from the Inscrutable
World that he had been honoured with the title of a dervish, and his entering
into matrimonial alliance with the royal house was impracticable. He suggested
to them that they could perhaps consider his nephew, Mir Sayyid Hasan, the son
of Mir Sayyid Shah, for this alliance and that this special favour could be
granted to him. He further told them: "I shall consider this development as
an inexhaustible good fortune. I vouch for Mir Hasan's intelligence, merit,
loyalty and sincerity. It is likely that this may create doubts in the mind of
the Sultan and he might impute motives to my suggestion. But the fact is that
after fighting the overwhelming forces of Sahib Qiran, I retired to the holy
city of Meshhad and in the shrine there, the invisible tongue of the Imam
conferred upon me the title of dervish. This fact is known to every one."
Sultan Ghiathu'd-Din's courtiers conveyed these words
to him. Dismissing all doubts and controversial inferences, he told them that he
would fulfil the wishes of a pure person' (mumin) as both the honourable Sayyids
were two pearls from one shell.
After a few days, the privy counsellors of the Sultan
made elaborate arrangements for collecting gorgeous robes commensurate with
their status and worthy of being presented to the royalty and also procured
swift horses and camels and an unimaginable quantity of provisions, and then set
up a grand feast. Then they carried the chaste betrothed one to Mir Sayyid Hasan
Baihaqi. The whole of Sambal and Mian-do- Ab was conferred upon him as his jagir.
The pargana of Dankur in the vicinity of Delhi was given to him as his dwelling
place. Thus the group [of Sayyids] settled at Jarichah. They subdued and
suppressed almost all the headstrong and defiant people of that locality and
exacted taxes and tributes from them. Between Sambal and Miando-Ab, they set up
security posts at vulnerable points. If a traveller, for some reason, was forced
to leave behind his luggage at one of these points, the militant people of the
area, fearing this group, would carry it on their backs and heads and bring it
to the town of Jarichah.
However, the world and its denizens at large know full
well that the turbulent spheres do not let the faithful live in peace and
permanence, and [consequently] Sultan Ghiathu'dDin responded to the call of the
After the death of Sultan Ghiathu'd-Din, a dervish,
after visiting Kashmir, passed through Lahore and Delhi and arrived in Jarichah,
where he was introduced to Sayyid Mahmud. He praised Kashmir before him and also
recounted to him the tales of just dispensations of Sultan Sikandar, the
Iconoclast. This excited in Mir Sayyid a desire to visit that land. He and his
warriors left their families-children and womenfolk;-at Delhi and Jarichah and
set out for Kashmir via Hirpur. Sultan Sikandar came out to receive them in the
city. Their association flourished so much that Mir Sayyid almost forgot his
desire of governing Sabzewar and Mian-do-Ab. The remaining part of the story of
this group will be resumed at its proper place.
Men of learning
During the reign of that devout king (Sultan Sikandar)
eminent and well-known scholars arrived in this land from different cities and
places. A fairly large number of revered Sayyids and generous noblemen who
had various attainments to their credit graced this land with their august
steps. Among them is the versatile and remarkable Mir Sayyid Ahmad bin Sayyid
Muhmmad Isfahani whose work Tanvir is based on the commentary on
Faraiz-i-Sirraji. This book gives evidence of his sharp intelligence and
powers of elucdating subtle truths and sublime realities. Besides this work, his
epistles exhibit his superb command over rhetoric. Another man of erudition
among the immigrants is Sayyid Muhammad Khawari, Khawari being his pen-name.
Khawar Nameh is one of his works. In the field of mysticism, he wrote a
commentary on Lum'at. Both these learned men were devoted and close followers of
Amir Sayyid Muhammad Hamadani. They have expressed their devotion and adherence
to the Sayyid in some of their works. Yet another learned and true Sayyid and
the upholder of the faith is Qadi Sayyid Hassan Shirazi, who had held the post
of a Qadi in Shiraz. On arriving in this country during the reign of the late
Sultan Sikandar, he was appointed to the post of a Qadi. There is a tract in his
own hand, in which the Ratniyeh [sic] hadith have been collected. At the end of
the tract, the Qadi has recorded that he had shown it to the exalted and
venerable Mir Sayyid Muhammad Hamadani, who had duly authenticated it. It should
not remain unknown that though some of the learned men have raised doubts about
Ratniyeh hadith, yet most of the 'ulema, the grand doctors, and prominent
scholars have accepted them as authentic. It is thus clear that in this matter
the Qadi was among the pupils of Amir Sayyid Muhammad Hamadani.
In the days of that devout ruler (Sultan Sikandar), a
large number of exalted Shaykhs and respectable Sayyids, who were men of
extraordinary attainments and of spiritual powers, arrived in this land. One of
these was Amir Sayyid Ahmad Madani, who had migrated from Medina along with his
family and settled in this land. Many extraordinary spiritual feats are
attributed to him. After his death, his burial place became a shrine which
common people frequented to receive blessings and for the fulfilment of their
desires. Another person is Shaykh Jalal Bukhari who had came to this land from
Bukhara along with a large number of his companions including the Sayyids of
respectable status. His grave can be found in the graveyard of the native
Sultans. The burial places of the Sayyids who had accompanied him have become
shrines visited by people. For instance, both Mir Sayyid Taju'd-Din and Mir
Sayyid Burhan are buried at Iskandar Pora- a locality laid out by Sultan
Sikandar. Sayyid Nuru'd-Din, who is buried in Qutbu'd-Din Pora locality,
was a comparion of Shaykh Jalalu'd-Din. Another person is Baba Hajji Adham who
had come from Balkh along with a large number of his followers and attendants.
Baba Hasan Mantaqi, father of Mir Veys, is buried in the Mazar-i-Salatin and he,
too, was among the followers of Baba Hajji Adham. The great grandfather of the
writer of these pages named Mulla Hasamu'd-Din was also a follower of Baba Hajji
Adham and had accompanied him from Ghazna. He served in the kitchen of that
saint and his group of dervishes. This Baba Hajji Adham lived to see the
times of Sultan Zainu'l-'Abidln. After his death, his body was buried in the
well-known garden called Bagh-i Mir Veys-an endowment property-at the foot of
the Khanqah of Mulla Parsa near Koh-i-Maran. His grave has become famous for
visits [by the needy].
Baba Hajji Adham's disciple, Baba Hasan Mantaqi, though
a married man, lived the life of an ascetic. Once Sultan Zainu'l-'Abidin
requested him for a gift. A few days later the Baba carried something in the
sleeve of his leathercoat and came to Sultan Zainu'l-'Abidin. He asked him
to stretch out the hemline of his gown to receive the gift. The Baba put a
month-old infant in his lap, saying. "This is my gift to you. Take proper
care of him." The Sultan carried the infant to his private chamber and
entrusted it to the care of his chief mistress, the daughter of Seydan Baihaqi.
A nurse was engaged to look after the infant. It is said that the queen bore no
child to the Sultan. When Mir Veys  was given to her, out of extreme
maternal love and affection, her breasts were filled with milk. Mir Veys suckled
on the milk of the queen as well as the nurse. Whatever portion of knowledge and
learning fell to the share of Mir Veys was through the care of Sultan
Zainu'l'Abidin, and whatever he acquired of asceticism and mystecism was
inherited by him from his father and Baba Hajjl Adham.
Another person among those who arrived in this land
during the reign of the devout king ( Sikandar ) is Mulla Parsa. He too was
gifted with piety and purity and had various attainments and virtues to his
credit. At the foot of the Koh-i-Maran, he built a khanqah for himself.
The august king and the upholder of the laws of
religion granted villages, hamlets, habitations, and houses, commensurate with
their needs and status, to each of the 'ulema, the learned, the ascetic, the
pious, the noble, the Sayyid and the Qadi. These were by way of endowments and
stipends so that they were provided with the means of subsistence. Villages and
hamlets thus endowed were given as permanent holds to be inherited by their
future generations, without any break. Thus their successors continue to hold
these endowments down to his day.
The same king (Sultan Sikandar) created the post of
Shaykhu'l-Islam in this land. A large number of hamlets and villages were
selected from each pargana and set apart as endowed to that noble post so that
stipends and alms could be provided through that source for distribution among
the learned, the Qadis, the Sayyids, the mendicants, the needy, the pilgrims and
the travellers, in accordance with the needs and rights of each.
He also built a hospital, Daru'l-Shifa, in this land,
where food, medicines and other requirements were provided for patients and the
ailing ones. The physicians and medical practitioners of this land were given
stipends and financial assistance to enable them to attend to the sick. They
were required to pay daily visits to the hospital, diagnose diseases and
prescribe treatments and cures. These acts of charity, which have continued to
this day, were the result of the august company and counsel of Amir Sayyid
Muhammad Hamadani. It was through his blessings that this noble and
religious-minded king was able to support and strengthen the law of Muhammad and
to promote and advance his religion and community. So long as Amir Sayyid
Muhammad Hamadani lived in this land, the pargana of Mattan was provided for his
subsistence. He built a two-storeyed mosque by the side of the spring of Bhavan,
a spring of unparalleled clean and transparent waters.
The late religious-minded king Sultan Sikandar, built
the locality of Navato  for his residence. There he built a magnificent
palace, the like of which did not exist [before]. A lofty and imposing Jami'
mosque was also built by him in the same locality where Id festivals would be
celebrated and congregations held. Throughout the lands of Hind and Sindh and
the climes of Iran and Turan, one cannot come across a mosque of such grandeur
and magnificence, though, of course such grand mosques do exist in the lands of
Egypt and Syria. The architect of this mosque was Khwaja Sadru'd-Din who had
come to this land from Khurasan. A Jami' mosque and a lodge at Vejeh Belarah 
were also among the architectural works executed under the orders cf this king.
Mazar-i-Salatin and Khanqah
On the banks of the river which flowed through the
city, he laid out a burial ground for the royal dead. The lofty ideals and
glory of this king are reflected in the magnificent buildings that he raised.
The platform which the venerable Amir-i-Kabir Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani had raised at
'Alau'd-Din Pora for addressing religious gatherings was made use of as a
foundation for the Khanqah, for the maintenance of which he allotted a few
villages by way of endowment and provided means of subsistence for its employees
Some people are of the opinion that Amir Sayyid
Muhammad Hamadani possessed a jewel which he gave to the late Sultan Sikandar.
The Sayyid bought the villages of Talal (Tral) and Vachi, which he later gave to
this khanqah by way of an endowment to provide for the recitors of the Qur'an
and the caretakers of the khanqah. The foundation and the structure of the
khanqah as laid by Amir Sayyid Hamadani made it small and limited. Private
houses of the inhabitants [of the locality] and the caretakers were so close to
the walls of the khanqah that if a fire wolld break out in the locality, its
flames would engulf the entire khanqah [complex] .
Sultan Zainu'l-'Abidin rebuilt the khanqah. In the days
of Malik Kaji Chak, Amir Shamsud-Din Muhammad Iraqi -God bless the most pious
one-graced this land with his auspicious footsteps and he undertook the
reconstruction of this khanqah afresh to make it spacious, lofty and imposing.
Private houses in its periphery were pulled down and adjoining private lands
were acquired against substantial cash payments. People who were not in need of
money, such as Qadi Muhammad Qudsi and the offspring of Mulla Baba Ali, were
given alternative sites in other localities, and thus the neighbourhood of the
khanqah was cleared so that in future it would be secure against accidental
fires and other calamities.
During the days of Amir Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad Iraqi the
endowments to the khanqah increased considerably, so much so that during the
life time of that venerable person, one hundred and twenty five traks  of
rice were cooked in the kitchen of the khanqah each day; sixty-five traks for
dinner. There was hardly a day when meat was not cooked in the kitchen of the
khanqah. These works of public charity included a public kitchen and a
pottage-house (ashkhaneh). These were destroyed in a fire. Later on the
employees built smaller ones in their place. Loftiness of the building of the
khanqah and the commodiousness of its store-house for paddy and other required
articles speak of the magnanimity of Amir Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad 'Iraqi.
Sayyid Muhammad dies
It must not remain unknown that on account of the
obduracy and the animosity of Sayyid Hisari towards Amir Sayyid Muhammad
Hamadani, the latter found himself disheartened in this land. After seeking the
permission of [the late] Sultan Sikandar, he set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca to
perform Hajj and 'Umrah. After fulfilling this wish of visiting the holy shrines
of the venerable Imams, he reached the province of Khatlan, his
birth-place, and also the land where his illustrious father had been buried.
There he breathed his last, and was laid to rest by the site of his father.
Let it be known that Sultan Sikandar, the Iconoclast
reigned for twenty-five years, nine months, and six days after which he died.
[ verses ]
Muhammad Baihaqi, who adopted the pen-name of darvish
in his verses of which a Diwan was compiled, composed many verses and eulogies
in praise of Sultan Sikandar, and has also composed a chronogram suggesting the
year of Sultan's death. The fragment is reproduced from his Diwan:
[ verses ]
Another poet of those days composed some verses to
record the year of Sultan's death.
[ verses ]
Mahmud Baihaqi leaves Kashmir
The late Sultan Sikandar was succeeded by his eldest
son Sultan 'Ali  whose reign lasted eight years and some months. He did not
feel comfortable in the company of Mir Sayyid Mahmud Baihaqi. The Sayyid thought
that the garden of Kashmir was a land of calamities, and made a firm resolve to
proceed to Delhi. Thereupon the idea of hosting a public feast struck his mind.
All the high officials, the nobles, the Shaykhs, the Sayyids, the learned, and
men of eminence were invited to the spacious grounds of Idgah. 'Sultan 'Alau'd-Din,
the son of the late Sultan Sikandar, was also present in that assembly. Supper
was followed by recitations from the Qur'an. After this the invitees were made
to remove their mourning weeds and wear robes of honour according to their rank.
Then Mlr Sayyid Mahmud moved on to the burial place of Sultan Sikandar to pay
homage to him and then recited the following elegiac verses in a doleful voice:
[ verses ]
Thence Mir Sayyid took the Hirpur route and arrived at
his former house in Dehli to settle down into a quiet life. He withdrew himself
from the base material world and began to attend to pursuits for the world
hereafter. He built a mosque with [adjoining] structures and laid a burial
ground [for the holy]. An enormous public catering place was also built for the
use of people who visited the mosque. His extraordinary spiritual feats are
wellknown among the intelligent people in Kashmir and Dehli. His grave has
become a shrine for people who usually seek blessings and fulfilment of their
desires. His death occured in the month of Rabl'u'l Akhir.
Mir Sayyid Hasan, the nephew of Mir Sayyid Mahmud
Baihaqi, had been permitted by him to settle at Nowshehr in India. He was
known for his bravery and valour. Within a short time he succeeded in obtaining
tributes from the stiff-necked chieftains of the mountaineous regions of
Kashmir with which he met the expenses of salaries and provisions of his
troops. With a firm hand he suppressed rebellions whenever they were reported
and he (ruthlessly) put the miscreants to the sword.
During this time, it was reported to him that Raja
Jasrath, with the support of a group of infidels and wicked persons, had become
so haughty as to defy his authority in his own fort. He had misled the
people to rally round him. On hearing this news, Mir Sayyid Hasan seized his
sword, mounted his light-footed horse, and marched out of Nowshehr in India till
he confronted the rebels. A fierce battle ensued:
[ verses ]
The fort occupied by the profane infidels was as lofty
as the sky and was surrounded by a dark forest. This was the reason why his
warriors could not overpower the enemy. Although Mir Sayyid Hasan could not
coerce these ill-equipped insurgents into submission, he continued his fight
with them acting on the saying "a struggle in the path of God is its own
reward." He looked at his fight with that group as a holy war. In the
course of a fierce battle which ensued he attained martyrdom on the second day
of Rabl'u'l-Awwal of the year A.H. 837 (A.D. 1433). The year of his death
has been commemorated in a fragment:
[ verses ]
His grave is in Jasrot  [sic] when the news of his
martyrdom reached his relatives and children at Dehli, it was mourned by all the
nobles, the learned and the commoners of that city. Mir Sayyid Nasir, the son of
the late Sayyid Hasan, invited all the leading aristocrats, Sayyids, learned
men, and other notable personalities of Dehli to a feast where they were
lavishly entertained with varieties of food and sherbet. Recitations from the
holy Qur'an continued for several days and prayers for the peace of the departed
soul were offered. He also sent enormous quantities of food and drinks to the
houses of the Shaykhs, the divines, Sayyids and all the notable and elderly
persons of the city. After fulfilling these obligations, he returned to the town
Sultan Ghiathu'd-Din's daughter bore Mir Sayyid Hasan
Baihaqi seven sons. They were Mir Sayyid Zainu'l-'Abidin, Mir Mua'zzam Khan, Mir
Musa, Mir Sayyid Jalal, Mir Sayyid Shah, Mir Badshah, and Mir Sayyid Nasir. But
none except the youngest among them ventured to take revenge on Raja Jasrath.
Mir Sayyid Nasir, the youngest of his sons despite his youth, exhibited
undaunted courage in avenging his father's death. After procuring necessary
weapons and provisions he marched towards the domain of the worthless infidels.
The nobles advised him to carefully weigh the consequences of his adventure. All
his six brethren came to see him and advised him to drop the idea of an
expedition against that wicked group in that year. The courageous prince took
their advice and the execution of his plan got deferred for the next seven
1. For details regarding these alliances, see Jonar. p.
77. The chieftains with whom matrimonial relations were established by Shah Mir
were of Shankarpora (Pattan), Bhangila (Bengil), Bhringa (Bring), and other
places. See Rajat. v, 156n., vii, 493 and Vol. II, p. 468.
2. Malik Haidar says she was a descendant of the Rajas
of Hind [sic]. TMH MS. f. 32b. This, however, does not tell us anything about
the ruling house to which she belonged.
3. Jonaraja says that Uden Dev was recalled to Kashmir
by Sahmira. Jonar. St. 222.
4. Hasan gives his name as Pecheh Bhat, but it does not
appear to be correct. THK. p. 167. Jonaraja mentions neiher of these names but
his version of this seems to be correct when he says that it was Bhatta Bhiksana.
Jonar. Stt. 274-75. When written in Arabic, the name Bhikhshana/ Bhikhna
(Kashmiri) can be misread as Pecheh or Tejeh. Malik Haidar says that Tejeh Bhat
was a foster-brother of Kotehren. See TMH. MS. f. 33a.
5. The Turk invaders were commanded by one Urdun. TMH.
MS. f. 33a. Hasan writes that he entered into Kashmir via Hirpur pass in A.H.
732 (A.D. 1331). THK. p. 167.
6. Jonaraja writes that during the disturbances created
by Accala the people found a protector in Sahmira. Jonar. St. 245.
7. He subdued the chieftains of Bohurupa (Biru) and
Samala (Hamal). He burnt Vijayesa and Cakradhara (Tsakdar Udar), his stronghold.
Jonar. Stt. 252-55. Udyanadeva rewarded Sahmira by granting him Kramrajya (Kamraj)
and some other district in propriety rights to his sons Jyamisara (Jamshid) and
Allesara ('Ali Sher). See St. 225.
8. According to Jonaraja, his death was kept a secret
by Queen kotadevi for four days. Jonar. St. 264.
9. Andarkot. For details see Rajat. iv, 506-11n.
10. Jonaraja writes that Sahmira assassinated Bhatta
Bhiksana (and not Tejeh Bhat) who was one of his political rivals. See note 4
11. The author of the chronicle gives the impression
that the marriage of Koteh Ren with Shah Mir lasted for some time. This is
refuted by several prominent historians. Malik Haidar says that Koteh Ren
rejected his marriage proposal because she did not want to marry her
subordinate. But because she had been defeated by him, she committed suicide by
driving a dagger into her belly. TMH. MS. f. 34a. Hasan gives the same story,
but with a slight difference in detail. According to him she was compelled by
circumstances to agree to his proposal. On the day of their marriage she clad
herself in gorgeous robes; but stabbed herself by ripping open her bowels, and
said to Shah Mir, "This is my acceptance." THK. p. 169. Jonaraja,
however, denies that they were married. He says that Saimira shared her bed for
one night and then put her in prison. Jonar, Stt. 305306.
12. One of the significant acts of Shah Mir, which is
important from the historical point of view, was his discarding the hitherto
prevailing Saptrishi calendar in Kashmir and replacing it by the new Kashmiri
calendar, which he invented himself, beginning with the date of accession of
Rinchan in A.D. 725 A.D. 1324. It continued upto the beginning of Mughal rule.
THK. p. 169 .
l3. Avantipora. According to Hasan, Zenapora. THK. p
14. Hasan says that he suffered a defeat because his
chief vizier Sirraju'd-Din betrayed him and joined 'Alau'd-Din. THK. p. 170.
This is confirmed by Jonaraja who says that Sayyaraja (Sirraj) was promised a
reward and position by Allesera ('Ali Sher). Jonar. p. 83.
15. This name does not occur in TMH. Jonaraja gives two
names, Udayashri and Chandradarmara and the third man was a groom. J. C. Dutt,
(tr.) p. 36.
16. This is confirmed by Malik Haidar. TMH. MS. f. 34b.
But Hasan categorically states that she was Lala 'Arifa. THK. p. 171. Janaraja
writes that a circle of yoginis appeared from the forest of Vakpushta. The
Rajatarangini of Jonaraja, tr J. C. Dutt Delhi, 1986, pp. 35-36.
17. Jonaraja states that he erected two palaces, one at
Jayapidapora, and the other at Rinchanpora Buddhger). Jonar. p. 84.
18. The date of his death is stated in the chronogram 'makanash
ferdows'. THK. p. 171.
19. In Malik Haidar's work he is called Uchal [sic]
Chand, the son of Ravan Chand. This Malik Uchal [sic] settled in Chadura where
he built a fort, and thereafter his house was called Chaduri. He died while
fighting in Laghman near Kabul. His dead body was brought to Chadura and buried
there. TMH. MS. f. 36b.
20. This sentence indicates that Jonaraja's
Rajatarangini was one of the sources for our chronicler as far as the history of
early Shah Mirs is concerned. Also see Jonar. p. 85.
21. Hasan has computed their number at five lakh
soldiers and fifty thousand cavalrymen. The command of the troops was put in the
hands of Sayyid Hasan Bahadur, the son of Sayyid Taju'd-Din, a cousin of
Amir-i-Kabir Mir Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani. THK. p. 172.
22. Lamghan in Hasan. p. 172.
23. Candra, Sura and Laula were the three Damara
generals of the Sultan. Jonar. Stt. 370, 402.
24. Hasan corroborates this statement. See note 21
25. Satadru (Sutlej) in Jonar. p. 88. For further
details of his conquests, see Jonar. p. 85.
26. Truce was concluded on the initiative of Amir Kabir
Mir Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani. The Amir proposed the marriage of three daughters of
Feroz Shah with the relatives of Sultan Shihabu'd-Din. The eldest daughter was
married to Hasan Khan, the second one to Sultan Qutbu'd-Din, and the third one
to Sayyid Hasan Bahadur. THK. p, 173. Hasan further says that the Amir came to
Kashmir while Shihabu'd-Din was fighting with Feroz Shah. It can be gleaned from
Hasan that Mir Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani first came to Kashmir and then went to
Ferozpur to bring about conciliation between Shihabu'd-Din and Feroz Shah.
27. For details concerning the countries or towns he
conquered, see Jonar. p. 185.
28. Now called Shahampur. The locality comprised sixty
thousand houses besides one thousand military camps. THK. p. 174.
29. Its foundation existed even in Hasan's days. See
THK. p. 174.
30. A fort was built by Ujani Raina for himself at
Chadura which continued to be in the control of his descendants till the times
of Malik Haidar Chadura. See TMH. MS. f. 36
31. Present-day Bejbehara. For details see Rajat . Vol
. II, p. 463.
32. Malik Haiddar says that he brought many people
within the fold of Islamic faith. TMH. MS. f. 36b.
33. He was buried in the locality of Baldimar; a tomb
over his grave was built by Pratap Singh, a Dogra official under the rule of
Maharaja Ranbir Singh. See THK. p. 175. For Baldimar, the ancient Baladhyamatha,
see Rajat. Vol. II, p. 448.
34. Hasan gives his name as Hindal. THK. p. 175.
35. According to Hasan, Mir Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani
visited Kashmir for the second time in A.H. 781 /A.D. 1379. THK. p. 175. Malik
Haidar says that Mir Sayyid visited Kashmir during the reign of Sultan Qutbu'd-Din.
TMH. MS. f. 37a
36. This event has not been reported by Malik Haidar.
37. This indicates that they were his Hindu wives. The
name of Sultan Qutbu'd-Din's wife who gave birth to Sikandar was Subhatta. Jonar.
38. This story is not found in THK.
39. Ladda Margesa in Jonar. St. 617. By birth he was a
non-Brahman Hindu of a high caste. Jonar. St. 617. Sn.
40. This perhaps may be the beginning of the tradition
of 'Alamdars in Kashmir.
41. A MS copy of the work exists in the State Research
Library, Srinagar, under Cat. No. 658.
42. He was buried in Langarhatta mohalla in Srinagar.
THK. p . 176.
43. His mother, as Jonaraja has rightly pointed out,
was a Hindu. See note 37 supra.
44. It is interesting to note that he came to Kashmir
along with three thousand disciples. THK. p. 178.
45. Hasan makes no mention of this work.
46. Jonaraja says that it was owing to his political
sagacity (and not because of his religious canviction) that Sultan Sikandar
showed respect to the Sayyid. See Jonar. St. 574.
47. Also see Jonar. Stt. 575 and 591. Hasan has given
revealing details about Sultan Sikandar's attempts to do so by destroying Hindu
temples some of which were Martandesvara near Matan, three at Parihasapura, Maha
Shri, and Tarapitha [sic] temples in Iskandarpora, Srinagar. For details see THK.
48. For details of forcible conversion of Hindus to
Islam and their massacre in case they refused to be converted, see THK; pp.
178-80. One significant detail is that three kharwars (one kharwar is
approximately equal to eighty kilograms) of Hindu ceremonial thread (zunnar)
were burnt by Sultan Sikandar.
49. The Sayyid's marriage to Suha Bhatta's daughter
Baria is confirmed from THK. p. 178; Tarikh-i Sayyid 'Ali, MS. f. 44 and
Fatahat-i-Kubrawiyyeh, MS. f. 157a.
50. The story of persecution of Hindus by Sultaan
Sikardar is vividly recorded by Jonaraja in Stt. 657-669. Also see Stt. 597,
601-2, 606 and TMH. MS. f. 44a.
51. Jonaraja's statement that the elephants were
presented by Timur out of fear of Sultan Sikandar is difficult to accept. See
Jonar. St. 562. Hasan's version is that Timur was pleased to be informed at
Attock that Sultan Sikandar of Kashmir accepted him as his overlord and would
strike coins and read the khutba in his name. THK. p. 182.
52. A tune in classical Iranian music.
53. Such as 'Iraq, Khurusan, Transoxiana (Mawara'-anNahr),
etc. THK. p. 177.
54. It is not clear from the text whether Tanvir was a
work other than Faraiz-i-Sirraji or a part of its title.
55. Iskandarpora was laid out on the debris of the
destroyed temples of Hindus. In the neighbourhood of the royal palace in
Iskandarpora, the Sultan destroyed the temple of Maha Shri which had been built
by Pravarasena and another one built by Tarapida. The material from these was
used for constructing a Jami' mosque in the middle of the city. See THK. p. 180.
56. Present-day Khanqah-i-Mu'alla locality in Srinagar.
57. This sentence and the preceding one is all that the
author says about himself in the present work.
58. Originally called Sarikaparvata. See Rajat. iii,
349 and vol. II, p. 146.
59. Leather-coat was not a part of the dress of
Kashmiris during the Hindu period. Perhaps it was introduced in Kashmir after
the Central Asian practice. See my Kashmir Shawl, Srinagar, 1984.
60. The name given by Hasan is Muhammad Amin and not
Mir Veys. See p. 198.
61. Another saintly person of the same name was invited
by Sultan Zainu'l-'Abidin to Kashmir. See THK. p. 195.
62. Present-day Nowhatta.
63. Sultan Sikandar ravaged and looted the temple of
Vijayesvara. See Tohfat. MS. f. 138b.
64. Present-day Mazari-i-Salatin on the right bank of
Jhelum near Zaina Kadal in Srinagar.
65. One trak is approximately equal to five kilograms.
66. These holy shrines are at Najaf and Kerbala in'Iraq
and Meshhad and Qom in Iran.
67. Now a district of the Soviet Socialist Republic of
68. His family name was Mir Khan and he ascended the
throne in A.H 201/A.D. 1417. THK. p. 185.
69. On the left bank of Jhelum in Srinagar. It
continues to be known by the same name.
70. Parts of Nowshehra area are now under
71. South of Pir Pantsal range.
72. Jasrath Khan Ghakkar had escaped from Timur's
captivity in Samarqand and had established his authority over Panjab. Shahi Khan
(Zainu'l-'Abidin) had been given the throne of Kashmir when Sultan 'Ali decided
to proceed on a pilgrimage to Mecca. But on reaching Jammu his father-inlaw,
Raja of Jammu, dissuaded him from abdicating the throne. On his instance and
with his material help, Sultan 'Ali changed his mind and returned to Kashmir via
Pakhli to resume kingship. His brother Shahi Khan resisted him, but was defeated
and fled to Panjab where Jasrat Khan Ghakkar (Raja Jasrat of the text) gave him
shelter. Together they raised a large army, and in the second battle fought
between Sultan 'Ali and his brother Shahi Khan, the former was defeated and fell
a prisoner in the hands of Jasrat Khan. The victorious Zainu'l-'Abidin marched
on to Kashmir where he was warmly received by the people. THK. pp. 187-88.
Jonaraja says that Raja of Madra (Jammu) Billa Deva was slain in a battle
against Jasrath Khukhura who had become his enemy because he had disclosed his
place of hiding to the troops of Sayyid Mu'izzu'd-Din Mubarak Shah (A.D
14211434) of Dehli. See Eliot's History, Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shah IV, pp. 56-59;
Jonar. Stt. 711-16.
73. Probably it was somewhere near present Kathua.
Hasan says that after suffering defeat in the battle at Uri, Zainu'l'Abidin fled
to Sialkot. THK . p. 188.
74. Malik Doom Chndura, a local commander of Sultan
'Ali's troops and a descendant of the house of Chandas, also fell in this
battle. He was succeeded by his son Malik Avtar. TMH. MS. f. 39a.
75. Jasrot should not be confused with Jasrath. Jasrot
is the name of a place.