Political Divisions of
the year 1947 the State of Jammu and Kashmir was invaded by Pakistan. India and
Pakistan fought for more than a year when cease fire was agreed upon on 1st of
January, 1949 and the fighting stopped. A ceasefire line of demarcation gave
79788 Sq. Kms. of area of the state of Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan.
The district of Poonch
lost 52% of its area to Pakistan. The district of Muzaffarabad lost some area in
tehsil Muzaffarabad, Uri and Karnah. The whole of Gilgit district, Asotre
district and Mirpore district also went to Pakistan. The whole of Askardu tehsil
and a part of tehsil Kargil went to Pakistan. Invasion of China in 1962 also
made the State to suffer a loss of its area. In 1971 Pakistan once again made
unlawful possession of Chhamb, Deva, Chakla and Manawar.
The State of Jammu and
Kashmir, therefore, suffered serious splitting in area and population. Only four
districts - Udhampur, Jammu, Kathua and Anantnag - suffered no change; other
districts suffered loss in area, either wholly or partially to Pakistan.
necessary; therefore, new districts like Pulwama, Doda, Rajouri and Poonch were
The districts were further
sub-divided into tehsils so that more attention could be given to the
development of agriculture, cottage industries and trade. Construction of new
roads, water supply and electricity helped these rural setlements. The abolition
of jagirdari of two jagirs of Poonch and Chenani also brought about a change in
the area of these tehsils and districts. Poonch was made a district while
Chenani was merged with the district of Udhampur.
The latest reorganised
units of administration in Kashmir are:
The State of Jammu and
Kashmir is an integral part of the Indian Union. The President of the Indian
Union appoints the Governor. The Governor orders the leader of the major
political party in the State Legislature, which consists of the Legislative
Assembly and the Legislative Council, to form the Ministry to run the
Government. The Government thus formed, by the-elected representatives of the
people functions with the Opposition in the Legislature. The judiciary is
separate from the executive. The judges of the High Court are appointed by the
President of the Indian Union. Since 1990 the state is under Presidential rule
due to militancy. The Governor runs the administration with the help of Advisors
appointed by the Centre.
In addition to the State's
own constitution, the constitution of India applies to the State of Jammu and
Kashmir like the rest of the country but with a special status under article370.
It guarantees equal rights for all irrespective of caste, creed, color and
religion. As already stated above each province is divided into various
districts, which are administered by Deputy Commissioners, and each district is
divided into Tehsils, which are under Tehsildars and each Tehsil is further
sub-divided into Niabats, which are under Naib Tehsildars. There is one
Divisional Commissioner who is the provincial head.
Cities, Towns, Health
Resorts and Places or Historical Interest
The state of Jammu and
Kashmir is primarily an agricultural State, hence most of the population lives
in villages. But even then several towns and cities have grown up.
City, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir State, lies in the centre
of the Kashmir valley at 34.50 North longitude and 74.50 East longitude. It is
1524 metres above sea level. The most beautiful spot is the temple of
Shankarcharya on a hill over looking the city. The other is the Hariparbat hill
with a fort on its top. The city is spread on both the banks of the river Jhelum
for about 6.5 kms.
The city is now expanding
towards new settlements of Jawahar Nagar and Burzala on the elevated road
towards the aerodrome-Damodar Karewa. The aerodrome is situated on the Damodar
Karewa. Srinagar is the focus of tourist attraction. It is well known for
handicrafts like shawls, carpets, woollen and silk cloth, wood carving, silver
wares, papier mache and willow work. There are many Degree Colleges, a Medical
College and an Engineering College in this city. The University of Kashmir,
situated in Srinagar, provides instruction in multiple postgraduate courses.
2. Anantnag is 45
Kms from Srinagar towards Banihal. Khannabal is only 2.5 Kms. from Anantnag and
after passing through Khannabal one reaches Anantnag. It lies at 33.40 North
altitude and 75.10 East longitude. It is District Headquarter. There are many
holy springs in this area. Besides wooden toys, embroidered namdas and gabbas
are made here. There is one Govt. Degree College.in this town.
3. Achhabal is
located at a distance of 10 Kms. from Anantnag. The water of the spring there is
cold and helps digestion. Trout fish is found in abundance and the visitors from
far and wide come here to spend hot summer days. It is a famous health resort
4. Kokarnag is also
a health resort situated at a distance of 27 Kms. from Anantnag and 13 Kms. from
Verinag. There are beautiful camping grounds in Kokarnag for the visitors to
spend their summer days.
5. Mattan is
located on the Srinagar-Pahalganl road about 10 Kms. from Anantnag. The spring
at Mattan is considered holy by the Hindus. The spring is full of fish. Its
water irrigates agricultural land near Mattan.
6. Verinag lies at
the foot of the Pirpanjal on the side of Kashmir valley. There is a beatiful
spring at Verinag which is the source of the river Jhelum. The town is 34 Kms.
from Anantnag. The Tourist Dcpartment of the State has constructed some
beautiful huts here for the for tourists to the valley. It is also a famous
7. Pahalgam is a
township 2651 metres above sea level. It is a very famous health resort in the
State of Jammu and Kashmir. It is 96.5 Kms from Srinagar in Liddar Valley. There
are beautiful camping grounds on the banks of the river Liddar. Hindu pilgrims
going to Shri Amarnath Cave situated at a height of 600 metres above sea level
have to pass through Pahalgam. They first go to Pahalgam and then to Amarnath
either on foot or on ponies.
8. Kulgam is a
township to the west of Anantnag. The area of the twon is 5.54 Sq. Kms. It is on
the way between Shopian and Anantnag.
9. Shopian is a
foot-hill town. It has an area of 5.44 Sq. Km and is 55. Kms. south of Srinagar.
Some beautiful places like Aharbal fall, Kaunsarnag and Kungwattan surround this
area. Icebergs flow in these lakes till June. Aharbal fall is 13 Kms. from
Shopian. The town is well known for hand-woven Lois(woollen blankets). Apple
orchards are in abundance here. The Mughal Kings used to come to Kashmir via
Rajouri - Aliabad-Shopian route.
10. Gandarbal is
known for its clean, cold water and fresh air and tasty fish . It lies on the
banks of the Nullah Sind. The alluvial plain is sandy . It is also known for its
camping ground. It is 21 Kms. from Srinagar. Khirbhawani temple is at a distance
of 5 Kms. from this place. The Sind Valley Hydero-Electric Project is located at
11. Pampore is a
small township on Srinagar-Jammu road. The Government has established there very
big factories for the manufacture of furniture, plywood, bricks and tiles. The
town is famous throughout the world for the best quality of saffron grown here.
12. Sopore is 13
Kms. from Baramulla towards Srinagar. It is 6 Kms. by water through the river
Jhelum and is close to the Wullar lake. Cool breezes blowing from the lake
towards Sopore make evenings windy. Fish and fruit from this town are
exportedoutside the State. From Sopore a road leads to Lolab Valley, Handwara
and Tetwal. There is one Agricultural University at Sopore. This town is well
known for woollen patus. There is also one Degree College here.
13. Baramulla is 55
Kms. to the north of Srinagar. It lies at 34.1 deg. North Latitude and 72.2 deg
East Longitude. It is located at a height of 1600 metres above sea level. The
river Jhelum is navigable only upto Baramulla. The area of the town is 6.22 Sq.
Kms. It is known for its fruit orchards There is one Govt. Match Factory and one
Half-wrought rifle Factory located here The importance of B as a trade center
has declined considerably since the Jhelum-Valley cart-road was blocked in 1947.
There is also one Degree College in this town.
14. Handwara is at
a distance of 26 Kms. from Sopore. It is the Tehsil Headquarter. In this area is
situated Nichahom where liginite is mined. The mountains begin to rise and road
leads to mountain passes which are guarded by the army.
15. Bandipora is a
township on the eastern bank of the Wullar lake. It is 4.97 Sq. Kms. in area.
From here the road rises up the mountains leading to Gurez and Gilgit. The town
is known for the export of hand-woven lois (woollen blankets).
16. Uri is a
township in the north of Baramulla. It lies in the narrow gorge of the Jhelum.
Beyond Uri is the ceasefire-line making it militarily important.
17. Teetwal is
situated on the left bank of the river Kishanganga. A road leads to Sharda and
Keran from Teetwal. It is surrounded by mountains and is an important town
located at the cease-fire line.
18. Liddarwat is at
a distance of 21 Kms. from Pahalgam. It is located at a height of 3390 metres
above sea, 1evel and is a health resort. There are many camping grounds in this
area for the visitors to stay during summer.
19. Chandanwari is
situated at a distance of l9 Kms. from Pahalgam towards Amarnath Cave. It is at
a height of 3288 metres above sea level. It is also a very good health resort.
20. Aru is at a
distance of 3.03 Kms. from Pahalgam. This is a beautiful mountainous meadow or
grassy land. Tourists enjoy camping here during summer days.
21. Sonamarg is
located at a distance of 84Kms. from Srinagar towards Zojila pass. It is covered
with thick forests and situated at a height of 2438.4 metres above sea level.
Climate of this place is better than that of Gulmarg and Pahalgam. A road leads
to Kargil and Leh from Sonamarg.
22. Gulmarg, a
beatiful health-resort, is 52 Kms. to the south-west of Srinagar. It is located
at a height of 2650 metres above sea level . There is a beautiful camping ground
at Gulmarg where thousands of visitors come and enjoy themselves. A bridal path
leads to Khilanmarg and Alpather from this place. Grassy lands at Gulmarg are
best for playing golf. The area is surrounded by pine forests.
23. Sheshnag is 24
Kms. from Pahalgam. It is situated at a height of 3600 metres above sea level.
The water of the lake is cold and clear. During summer visitors come and enjoy
camping at the lake-side.
24. Yusmarg is at a
distance of 47 Kms. from Srinagar. It is also a good health resort where the
visitors go and enjoy themselves during summer days. It is 18 Kms. from
of Historical Interest
1. Shri Amarnath Cave
situated at a height of 6000 metres above sea level is 49 Kms. from Pahalgam.
There is a bridle path from Pahalgam to Shri Amarnath Cave. The cave is 9 metres
deep and is 14 metres high in the middle. The cave is made of gypsum. Thousands
of pilgrims visit the holy Shivling every year on the festival of Rakshabandan.
In the cave there are idols of Shiva, Parvati and Ganesh.
Temple is situated at a height of 2611 metres above sea level on a hill near
Dal Lake. There is a Shivling in this temple.Thousands of visitors and piligrims
go by bridle path or by road to visit this holy shrine.
3. Khirbhwani is
22.5 Kms. from Srinagar. Every year a very big fair is held there in June. This
is also a place of pilgrimage for Hindus.
4. Hariparbat Fort
is about 5 Kms. from Srinagar where there are holy shrines of the Hindus and the
Muslims. This fort which is siluated on a small hillock was built by the Mughal
5. Pari Mahal (Palace)
was built by Sufi Muslims as mentioned in the Rajtarangni. There is a road
leading from Chashma Shahi to Pari Mahal.
6. Kabutarkhana is
a beautiful small island in the Dal Lake. There is a Rest House built on the
7. Jawahar Tunnel is
built at Banihal at a height of 2194.56 metres above sea level. There are two
tubes each one of which is about 2825 metres long. It is the longest tunnel in
Asia. Before the construction of this tunnel the distance between Jammu and
Kashmir was 328 Kms, but now it has been reduced to 300 Kms. only.
8. Ruins of Martand
Temple near Mattan: Shivji and Vaishno temples in Awantipura, Bijbehara
ruins, ruins of Buddhist shrines in Harwan and Sharika Bhagwati Temple are the
ancient historical places in the valley of Kashmir.
9. Hazratbal, where
the holy hair of the prophet Mohammad is kept,
Jamia Mosque, Pathar
Mosque, Tomb of the mother of Zainulabdin Badshah, shrines of Makhdoom Hamza,
Bulbul Shah, Maula Drugjan, Naqashbandi, Madni and Makhdoomi, and Shah Hamdan
Mosque in Srinagar and Chrar-e-Sharief at a distance of 29 Kms. from Srinagar
are the holy shrines of the Muslims in the valley of Kashmir.
10. Nishat garden,
Shalimar garden, Chashma Shahi, Naseem garden and Verinag spring are historical
monuments. These were built by Mughal Kings in the valley of Kashmir during